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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Analytical chemistry 53 (1981), S. 936-938 
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Melissopus latiferreanus ; Lepidoptera ; Tortricidae ; Olethreutinae ; filbertworm ; sex pheromone ; sex attractant ; (E,E)-8 ; 10-dodecadien-1-ol acetate ; (E,Z)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol acetate ; conjugated diene isomerization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract (E,E)- and (E,Z)-8,10-Dodecadien-1-ol acetates were identified in a 1∶4.3 ratio in the extract of abdominal tips of female filbert-worm moths,Melissopus latiferreanus (Walsingham). The identifications were based on electroantennogram (EAG) analysis, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, ozonolysis, and synthesis. TheE,Z isomer produced the stronger EAG response. In the field tests of various ratios ofE,E∶E,Z, the ratio found in the extract captured the most males. The pureE,E isomer initially was not attractive by itself (〈0.1%E,Z) but became attractive after a few days, presumably because of isomerization. TheE, Z isomer (〈0.1%E,E) was attractive initially, but this compound might have isomerized faster than theE,E isomer. A study of the isomerization showed that regardless of the initial mixture of 8,10-dodecadien-1-ol acetate isomers, almost complete equilibration existed after one month. The equilibrium mixture consisted of 9%Z8,E10, 65%E8,E10, 23%E8,Z10, and 3%Z8,Z10. Concentrations in rubber septa (1∶4 ratio ofE,E toE,Z) of 0.03–3.0 mg/septum produced equivalent trap catches.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Diaphania hyalinata ; D. nitidalis ; melonworm ; pickleworm ; Lepidoptera ; Pyralidae ; sex pheromone ; insect behavior ; flight tunnel ; 10,12-hexadecadienal ; 11-hexadecenal
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Ten C16 chain-length compounds were identified from heptane extracts of ovipositors of female melonworm,Diaphania hyalinata (L.). The major constituents of the extracts were (E)-11-hexadecenal and (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal [(E,E)-10,12–16:Ald] and the alcohols and acetates of these olefins were found in trace amounts (〈2%). Extracts also contained traces of (E,Z)- and (Z,Z)-10,12-16:Ald, hexadecanal, and 1-hexadecanol. Analysis of the behavioral responses of males to synthetic mixtures of these compounds and responses to ovipositor extracts in a flight tunnel showed that a synthetic mixture of the 10 compounds elicited a behavioral repertoire from males that was indistinguishable from that elicited by ovipositor extract. Flight tunnel studies also indicated that six of the 10 compounds probably represent the essential components of the female's sex pheromone.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Mediterranean fruit fly ; Ceratitis capitata ; medfly ; C&C trap ; Jackson trap ; trimedlure ; ceralure ; attractant ; parapheromone ; panels
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is a major pest of fruits and vegetables in the world. With the help of an extensive trapping program, the continental United States has remained free of established medfly populations. In an effort to increase trapping efficiency, controlled-release polymeric panels with trimedlure and ceralure were developed in conjunction with the development of a new trap, the C&C trap. This study contrasts the effectiveness of different panel formulations with the standard trimedlure polymeric plug and describes the use of the panels in the C&C trap. Field tests in Hawaii using released sterile flies showed consistently higher male medfly catches with panels in C&C traps than with the standard trimedlure polymeric plug in Jackson traps.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Armyworm ; Mythimna unipuncta ; Pseudaletia unipuncta ; Leucania unipuncta ; Cirphis unipuncta ; Lepidoptera ; sex pheromone ; sex attractant ; (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol acetate ; (Z)-9-hexadecen-1-ol acetate ; hexadecan-1-ol acetate ; (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract (Z)-11-Hexadecen-1-ol acetate (Z11–16∶Ac) free of theE isomer (〈1%), hexadecan-1-ol acetate (16∶ Ac), and a hexadecen-1-ol [the (Z)-11 isomer based on the retention time on a Carbowax capillary column] were identified in extracts of the sex pheromone glands of adult virgin female armyworms,Pseudaletia unipuncta. Also, gas Chromatographic retention times on polar and nonpolar columns indicated the possible presence of (Z)-9-hexadecen-1-ol acetate (Z9–16∶Ac). The ratioZ11–16∶Ac/16∶Ac/Z11–16∶OH/Z9–16∶Ac was 1∶0.15∶0.13∶0.02. Infield testsZ11–16∶ Ac was attractive alone, and the addition ofZ9–16∶Ac,Zll–16 ∶ OH, or 16 ∶ Ac singly or in combination in ratios found in the gland did not increase trap capture.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Disparlure ; gypsy moth ; Lymantria dispar ; Lepidoptera ; Lymantriidae ; controlled release ; laminated dispensers ; hollow fibers ; microcapsules ; atmospheric permeation ; mating disruption ; air concentration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Disparlure, the gypsy moth sex pheromone, was aerially applied to three plots, using a different controlled-release formulation-gelatin microcapsules, flakes of plastic laminates, or hollow fibers-in each plot. Disparlure concentrations in air were measured intermittently over a 34-day period after application. Measurements were made at four heights above ground: 0.3,2,5, and 10m. Wind speed and air temperature were measured concurrently. Disparlure was emitted from the microcapsules and fibers at very high levels for the first day or two; thereafter, all three formulations produced gradually decreasing aerial concentrations. After 32–34 days, concentrations in all plots ranged from 1.5% to 15.5% of those on the first day, although most of the pheromone remained in the formulations. Results suggest that the effective life of all three formulations for mating disruption by atmospheric permeation would be near 30 days under the test conditions, with fibers likely to have the shortest life. Concentrations varied diurnally throughout the experiment, with highest levels generally between 1400 and 2200 hr each day. Concentrations were highest at the 10-m height with microcapsules and at the 0.3- and 10-m heights with flakes, but were similar at all heights with fibers. Biological implications of the results are presented.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Sabulodes caberata Guenée ; Sabulodes aegrotata Guenée ; omnivorous looper ; Lepidoptera ; Geometridae ; sex pheromone ; (Z,Z)-6,9-nonadecadiene ; (Z)-9-nonadecenekw] ; n-nonadecane
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A 6,9-nonadecadiene, (Z)-9-nonadecene, andn-nonadecane were identified in extracts of sex pheromone glands of femaleSabulodes caberata Guenée. Potential pheromonal activity of gland components was assessed by electroantennogram measurements of gas-chromatographic fractions of abdominal tip extracts. Chemical identification was based on gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of parent compounds, hydrogenation products, ozonolysis products, dimethyl disulfide adducts, and synthesis. The monoene was synthesized via coupling of alkyl and acetylenic intermediates. (Z,Z)-6,9-Nonadecadiene (Z6,Z9-19∶H) was synthesized from methyl linoleate via chain lengthening. SyntheticZ6,Z9-19∶H had the same retention times on polar and nonpolar capillary gas-chromatographic columns as the 6,9-nonadecadiene from the sex pheromone glands. In field testsZ6,Z9-19:H alone produced trap catch of maleS. caberata and addition of (Z)-9-nonadecene orn-nonadecane had no effect on trap catch.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Browntail moth ; Euproctis chrysorrhoea (L.) ; Lepidoptera ; Lymantriidae ; pheromone ; (Z,Z,Z,Z)-7,13,16,19-docosatetraen-1-ol isobutyrate ; sex attractant ; dose dependence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A unique sex attractant pheromone was isolated and identified from extracts of ovipositor tips from the female browntail moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). The pheromone compound, (Z,Z,Z,Z)-7,13,16,19-docosatetraen-1-ol isobutyrate, CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH= CH(CH2)4CH=CH(CH2)6O2CCH(CH3)2, was identified by a combination of gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and microreactions and was confirmed by synthesis. Traps baited with 5–50 μg of the synthetic pheromone, dispensed from rubber septa treated with an antioxidant and a UV stabilizer, gave male moth captures that were comparable to traps baited with three virgin females. Higher (250 μg) and lower (0.04–2.5 μg quantities of the synthetic pheromone on septa captured somewhat fewer males. Captures were the same for similar quantities of the natural and synthetic pheromone. Minor, inactive components in the tip extract were identified as a mixture of 7- and 8-pentacosanone.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Oriental fruit moth ; orfralure ; sex pheromone ; traps ; air permeation with pheromone ; Lepidoptera ; Olethreutinae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Orfralure [93% (Z), 7% (E)-8-dodecen-1-ol acetate], the synthetic pheromone of the oriental fruit moth,Grapholitha molesta (Busck), was released into the air of orchard test plots either by hanging plastic laminated dispensers on trees or by aerial dispersal of microcapsules containing a solution of the lure. Trap catch was reduced 95% or more with the most effective formulations, but consistently higher reductions were produced by the dispensers. In tests as long as 28 weeks with dispensers, a single retreatment at midseason maintained an effective concentration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Heliothis zea ; corn earworm moth ; insect pheromones ; glass open-tubular capillary chromatography ; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ; (Z)-1 1-hexadecenal ; (Z)-9-hexadecenal ; (Z)-7-hexadecenal ; hexadecanal ; insect behavior
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Glass open-tubular capillary Chromatographic and combined glass open-tubular capillary chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses of ovipositor washes of femaleHeliothis zea, chemical characterization, chemical synthesis, and laboratory and field bioassays showed that the ovipositor wash of the species is made up of 90–95% (Z)-11-hexadecenal, 1–2% (Z)-9-hexadecenal, 0.4–2% (Z)-7-hexadecenal, and 2–7% hexadecanal. Stimuli containing a binary mixture of (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (Z)-9-hexadecenal or the binary mixture in combination with any of the other aldehydes identified from the females elicited intense attraction and close-range precopulatory reactions fromH. zea males.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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