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  • 1
    Abstract: Robotic radiosurgery using more than one circular collimator can improve treatment plan quality and reduce total monitor units (MU). The rationale for an iris collimator that allows the field size to be varied during treatment delivery is to enable the benefits of multiple-field-size treatments to be realized with no increase in treatment time due to collimator exchange or multiple traversals of the robotic manipulator by allowing each beam to be delivered with any desired field size during a single traversal. This paper describes the Iris(TM) variable aperture collimator (Accuray Incorporated, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), which incorporates 12 tungsten-copper alloy segments in two banks of six. The banks are rotated by 30 degrees with respect to each other, which limits the radiation leakage between the collimator segments and produces a 12-sided polygonal treatment beam. The beam is approximately circular, with a root-mean-square (rms) deviation in the 50% dose radius of 〈0.8% (corresponding to 〈0.25 mm at the 60 mm field size) and an rms variation in the 20-80% penumbra width of about 0.1 mm at the 5 mm field size increasing to about 0.5 mm at 60 mm. The maximum measured collimator leakage dose rate was 0.07%. A commissioning method is described by which the average dose profile can be obtained from four profile measurements at each depth based on the periodicity of the isodose line variations with azimuthal angle. The penumbra of averaged profiles increased with field size and was typically 0.2-0.6 mm larger than that of an equivalent fixed circular collimator. The aperture reproducibility is 〈= 0.1 mm at the lower bank, diverging to 〈= 0.2 mm at a nominal treatment distance of 800 mm from the beam focus. Output factors(OFs) and tissue-phantom-ratio data are identical to those used for fixed collimators, except the OFs for the two smallest field sizes (5 and 7.5 mm) are considerably lower for the Iris Collimator. If average collimator profiles are used, the assumption of circular symmetry results in dose calculation errors that are 〈1 mm or 〈1% for single beams across the full range of field sizes; errors for multiple non-coplanar beam treatment plans are expected to be smaller. Treatment plans were generated for 19 cases using the Iris Collimator (12 field sizes) and also using one and three fixed collimators. The results of the treatment planning study demonstrate that the use of multiple field sizes achieves multiple plan quality improvements, including reduction of total MU, increase of target volume coverage and improvements in conformality and homogeneity compared with using a single field size for a large proportion of the cases studied. The Iris Collimator offers the potential to greatly increase the clinical application of multiple field sizes for robotic radiosurgery
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19687567
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A dual-isotope method was developed to measure grazing rates and food preferences of individual species of heterotrophic dinoflagellates from natural populations, collected from the Slope, Gulf Stream, and Sargasso Sea and from a transect from Iceland to New England, in 1983. The isotope method measures the grazing rates of microzooplankton which cannot be separated in natural populations on the basis of size. Tritiated-thymidine and 14C-bicarbonate were used to label natural heterotrophic and autotrophic food, respectively. Nine oceanic dinoflagellate species in the genera Protoperidinium, Podolampas, and Diplopsalis fed on both heterotrophic and autotrophic food particles with clearance rates of 0.4 to 8.0 μl cell-1 h-1, based on 3H incorporation, and 0.0 to 28.3 μl cell-1 h-1, based on 14C incorporation. Two dinoflagellate species, Protoperidinium ovatum and Podolampas palmipes, fed only on 3H-labelled food particles. Several species of dinoflagellates fed on bacteria (〈1 μm) which had been prelabelled with 3H-thymidine. The clearance rates of heterotrophic dinoflagellates and ciliates were similar and within the range of tintinnid ciliate clearance rates reported in the literature. As heterotrophic dinoflagellates and ciliates can have comparable abundances in oceanic waters, we conclude that heterotrophic dinoflagellates may have an equally important impact as microheterotrophic grazers of phytoplankton and bacteria in oceanic waters.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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