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  • 1
    Abstract: Reduced cardiac vagal control reflected in low heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with greater risks for cardiac morbidity and mortality. In two-stage meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies for three HRV traits in up to 53,174 individuals of European ancestry, we detect 17 genome-wide significant SNPs in eight loci. HRV SNPs tag non-synonymous SNPs (in NDUFA11 and KIAA1755), expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) (influencing GNG11, RGS6 and NEO1), or are located in genes preferentially expressed in the sinoatrial node (GNG11, RGS6 and HCN4). Genetic risk scores account for 0.9 to 2.6% of the HRV variance. Significant genetic correlation is found for HRV with heart rate (-0.74〈rg〈-0.55) and blood pressure (-0.35〈rg〈-0.20). These findings provide clinically relevant biological insight into heritable variation in vagal heart rhythm regulation, with a key role for genetic variants (GNG11, RGS6) that influence G-protein heterotrimer action in GIRK-channel induced pacemaker membrane hyperpolarization.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28613276
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0022-4596
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Tetrahedron Letters 33 (1992), S. 1225-1226 
    ISSN: 0040-4039
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Solid State Communications 92 (1994), S. 185-187 
    ISSN: 0038-1098
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-10-10
    Description: The alarmin cytokines IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) play a critical role in asthma pathogenesis by inducing mucosal Th2-type cytokine production. Although environmental exposure to aeroallergens has been proposed as an alarmin trigger in asthma, there has been no systematic parallel study of the effects of allergen exposure on the expression of these cytokines in the airways of human asthmatics. Using single and sequential double immunohistochemistry, we evaluated the numbers and phenotypes of IL-25–, IL-33–, and TSLP-immunoreactive cells in sections of bronchial biopsies from mild atopic asthmatics ( n = 16) before and 24 h after allergen inhalational challenge. Allergen challenge highly increased expression of baseline immunoreactivity for IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP, both in the bronchial epithelium and submucosa ( p 〈 0.001), to a degree that correlated with the extent of the late phase of airway obstruction. Aside from epithelial cells, the principal source of immunoreactivity for all three alarmins, TSLP, and IL-33 immunoreactivity colocalized principally with endothelial cells and mast cells, neutrophils, and fibroblasts, whereas IL-25 immunoreactivity colocalized principally with eosinophils as well as endothelial cells, mast cells, and fibroblasts. The data implicate that allergen challenge directly increases airway alarmin expression in atopic asthmatics to a degree correlating with increase late-phase airway obstruction, affirming these molecules as potential molecular targets for the inhibition of allergen-induced airway inflammation and obstruction.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-11-02
    Description: Purpose: Previous human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-derived resistance studies were based on ex vivo models, which could not mirror evolutionary expression of HER2 during therapy. To investigate dynamic expression of HER2 and its contribution to developing therapeutic resistance conferred by chromosome aneuploidy, both the HER2 phenotype and chromosome 8 (Chr 8) aneuploidy on circulating tumor cells (CTC) were coexamined in advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients. Experimental Design: A total of 115 AGC patients, including 56 of histopathologic HER2 + (hHER2 + ) subjects who received first-line HER2-targeted therapy plus chemotherapy, and 59 of hHER2 – patients who received chemotherapy alone, were prospectively enrolled. Both HER2 phenotype and Chr8 aneuploidy of CTCs in patients were coexamined by HER2-iFISH during therapy. Results: A fluctuated positive HER2 phenotype on CTCs (cHER2 + ) was revealed, showing cHER2 + at different time intervals during treatment. Acquisition of the cHER2 + phenotype in 91.0% of hHER2 + and 76.2% hHER2 – patients was demonstrated to correlate with development of resistance to trastuzumab-targeted therapy for hHER2 + patients and chemotherapy alone for hHER2 – patients. Aneuploid Chr8 was demonstrated to participate in the acquisition of the cHER2 + phenotype, which provides a growth advantage to HER2 + CTCs against therapeutic pressure, leading to the development of therapeutic resistance. Conclusions: Compared with low positivity of conventional histopathologic hHER2 examination routinely performed once, significant higher positivity of cHER2 + on CTCs was observed. Continuously examining cHER2 shows unique advantages with respect to monitoring therapeutic resistance in real time in carcinoma patients. Moreover, contribution of chromosome aneuploidy to the phenotypic evolution of HER2 expression on CTCs may help elucidate underlying mechanisms of developing therapeutic resistance. Clin Cancer Res; 24(21); 5261–71. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-03-20
    Description: The epithelial cytokines IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and IL-25 have been implicated in asthma pathogenesis because they promote Th2-type cytokine synthesis, but their expression is relatively poorly documented in "real-life" human asthma. Using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), we measured airway concentrations of these mediators and compared them with those of Th1- and Th2-type cytokines, airway infiltration of neutrophils and eosinophils, and lung function in a large group of asthmatic patients with a range of disease severity ( n = 70) and control subjects ( n = 30). The median BALF concentrations of IL-33, TSLP, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-12p70, but not IL-25, IL-2, or IFN-, were significantly elevated in asthmatics compared with controls ( p 〈 0.05). The concentrations of IL-33 and TSLP, but not IL-25, correlated inversely with the lung function (forced expiratory volume in the first second) of asthmatics (IL-33: r = –0.488, p 〈 0.0001; TSLP: r = –0.565, p 〈 0.0001) independently of corticosteroid therapy. When divided according to disease severity and corticosteroid therapy, all subgroups of asthmatics had elevated median numbers of eosinophils in BALF, whereas the patients with more severe disease who were treated with corticosteroids had higher numbers of neutrophils compared with milder asthmatics not so treated and control subjects ( p 〈 0.05). The data implicate TSLP and IL-33 in the pathogenesis of asthma that is characterized by persistent airway inflammation and impaired lung function despite intensive corticosteroid therapy, highlighting them as potential molecular targets.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-02-21
    Description: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a chromatin-binding nuclear protein, plays a critical role in sepsis by acting as a key "late-phase" inflammatory mediator. Integrin CD11b is essential for inflammatory cell activation and migration, thus mediating inflammatory responses. However, it is unclear whether CD11b participates in the development of sepsis. In this study, we report that CD11b contributes to LPS-induced endotoxin shock and microbial sepsis, as antagonism of CD11b with the CD11b blocking Ab or CD11b inhibitor Gu-4 protects mice against LPS- and microbial sepsis-related lethality, which is associated with significantly diminished serum HMGB1 levels. Consistent with this, CD11b-deficient mice were more resistant to microbial sepsis with a much lower serum HMGB1 level compared with wild-type mice. Pharmacological blockage and genetic knockdown/knockout of CD11b in murine macrophages hampered LPS-stimulated HMGB1 nucleocytoplasmic translocation and extracellular release. Furthermore, silencing CD11b interrupted the interaction of HMGB1 with either a nuclear export factor chromosome region maintenance 1 or classical protein kinase C and inhibited classical protein kinase C–induced HMGB1 phosphorylation, the potential underlying mechanism(s) responsible for CD11b blockage-induced suppression of HMGB1 nucleocytoplasmic translocation and subsequent extracellular release. Thus, our results highlight that CD11b contributes to the development of sepsis, predominantly by facilitating nucleocytoplasmic translocation and active release of HMGB1.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-02-02
    Description: Thioesterase superfamily member 1 (Them1) is an acyl-CoA thioesterase that is highly expressed in brown adipose tissue, where it functions to suppress energy expenditure. Lower Them1 expression levels in the liver are upregulated in response to high-fat feeding. Them1 –/– mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and glucose intolerance, but the contribution of Them1 in liver is unclear. To examine its liver-specific functions, we created conditional transgenic mice, which, when bred to Them1 –/– mice and activated, expressed Them1 exclusively in the liver. Mice with liver-specific Them1 expression exhibited no changes in energy expenditure. Rates of fatty acid oxidation were increased, whereas hepatic VLDL triglyceride secretion rates were decreased by hepatic Them1 expression. When fed a high-fat diet, Them1 expression in liver promoted excess steatosis in the setting of reduced rates of fatty acid oxidation and preserved glycerolipid synthesis. Liver-specific Them1 expression did not influence glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity, but did promote hepatic gluconeogenesis in high-fat-fed animals. This was attributable to the generation of excess fatty acids, which activated PPARα and promoted expression of gluconeogenic genes. These findings reveal a regulatory role for Them1 in hepatocellular fatty acid trafficking.
    Print ISSN: 0022-2275
    Electronic ISSN: 1539-7262
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-02-09
    Description: Intra-abdominal adhesion is a common complication after laparotomy. Conventional therapeutic strategies still cannot safely and effectively prevent this disorder. In this study, a combination of chitosan, cellulose, and seaweed polysaccharide (thereafter referred as CCS) was developed to significantly alleviate the formation of postoperative adhesion in rats with abdominal trauma. Transforming growth factor β 1 (TGF- β 1, an important promoter of fibrosis) and its downstream factors—namely, alpha-smooth muscle actin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)—were effectively suppressed by CCS in vivo, and as a result, the activation of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA, may generate plasmin that is a fibrinolytic factor capable of breaking down fibrin) was significantly promoted, presenting antifibrosis effects of CCS. In addition, the activity of kinases [e.g., transforming growth factor–activated kinase 1 (TAK1), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/Stress-activated Protein Kinase (SAPK), and p38] in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inflammation signaling pathway was also significantly suppressed by CCS in vivo, demonstrating anti-inflammatory functions of CCS. The histologic studies further confirmed the role of CCS in the inhibition of fibrosis, collagen deposition, inflammation, and vascular proliferation. These results indicate the clinical potential of CCS in the treatment of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion. CCS may induce both antifibrosis and anti-inflammatory effects, potentially inhibiting the postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion. For antifibrosis effects, the expression of PAI-1 (a key factor for the adhesion formation) can be regulated by different TGF- β 1–associated signaling pathways, such as the Smads/p53 pathway, metalloproteinase/tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases pathway, Mitogen-activated Extracellular signal-regulated Kinase (MEK)/extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway, and Yes-associated protein/transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif pathway. Following the downregulation of PAI-1 achieved by CCS, the activation of tPA (which may generate plasmin that is a fibrinolytic factor capable of breaking down fibrin) is significantly promoted. For anti-inflammation effects, CCS may suppress the phosphorylation of classic kinases (e.g., TAK1, JNK, and p38) in the MAPK signaling pathway. In addition to the MAPK pathway, inflammatory pathways, such as Nuclear Factor--gene Binding(NF-B), MEK/ERK, and Ras homologue protein/Rho associated coiled coil forming protein, are associated with the formation of intra-abdominal adhesion. Therefore, the prevention mechanisms of CCS will be further investigated in the future, with a hope of fully understanding of antiadhesion effects.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3565
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-0103
    Topics: Medicine
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