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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pineal gland of adult golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) was studied by various cytochemical methods at the electron microscopic level: (1) the modified chromaffin reaction specific for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), (2) argentaffin reaction, (3) zinc-iodide-osmium (ZIO) mixture reaction and (4) acid phosphatase reaction. In the pinealocytes, the dense-cored vesicles (80–160 nm in diameter) show both chromaffinity and argentaffinity, while the population of dense bodies (150–400 nm in diameter) is reactive to ammoniacal silver solution and ZIO mixture but not to the modified chromaffin reaction. After incubation for demonstration of acid phosphatase activity, reaction products are localized in some, but not all, of the dense bodies, in some of the small vesicles in the Golgi region and in one or two inner Golgi saccules. In nerve fibers in the pineal gland, small granulated vesicles are also reactive to the modified chromaffin reaction and ZIO mixture. Based upon these cytochemical results the following conclusions have been reached: (1) dense cored vesicles in the pinealocytes and small granulated vesicles in the nerve fibers of the hamster pineal gland contain 5-HT, and (2) the population of dense bodies in the pinealocytes is heterogenous, some are lysosomes and the others are possibly the granules responsible for the secretion of pineal peptides.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Corticotrophs ; Pituitary gland ; Golden hamster ; Immunocytochemistry ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructure of corticotrophs in the pituitary of golden hamsters was studied by immunocytochemistry. Corticotrophs were classified into three types according to the different size of the secretory granules. Type A and B cells were oval or polygonal in shape containing small (158±38 nm) and medium-sized (250±53 nm) secretory granules, respectively. Type C cells were usually pyramidal or irregular in shape, and contained large secretory granules (380±78 nm). The cytoplasmic organelles of type B and C cells were fairly well developed. In all types of corticotrophs, the secretory granules varied in electron density, and were either arranged in a single row along the cell membrane, or concentrated in the vascular pole of the cytoplasm. Many of the corticotrophs sent processes to encircle neighboring somatotrophs. In the female, the proportions of type A and B cells were higher then those in the male, whereas that of the type C cells was lower. All three types of corticotrophs were observed in the early postnatal stage. The population of type A cells decreased with the advancement of postnatal development, with a concomitant increase of that of the type C cells. Thus, type A cells might represent the immature type of corticotrophs which would evolve to become the type C cells. One to 2 weeks after adrenalectomy, the number of type C cells was drastically increased. This was accompanied by their prominent changes in ultrastructure as in the type B cells. The cytoplasm became hypertrophic with extensive dilated cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum. The large Golgi apparatus displayed profiles seemingly involved in the formation of secretory granules. The number of type A cells was moderately decreased, and they showed little morphological alteration. Since type B and C corticotrophs exhibited a remarkable response to adrenalectomy, it is concluded that they represent the active state of corticotrophs.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The ultrastructure of the superficial pineal gland of the yellow-bellied country rat (Rattus losea Swinhoe), living under natural climatic conditions at the margin of the tropical region, was stuthed with special reference to the seasonal changes. In the rainy season with average monthly rainfall of 400 mm (light phase of 13.5 h, and temperature of 28°C) the gland was characterized by the presence of frequent large vacuoles containing flocculent material (LVFs), large condensed inclusions (LCIs) in the pinealocytes, and extensive accumulations of presumptive secretion in the extracellular compartment, suggesting an enhanced secretory activity. In the dry season with average monthly rainfall of 13 mm (light phase of 11 h, and temperature of 19°C), however, the pinealocytes were characterized by the presence of numerous clear spindles, which exhibited acid phosphatase activity; at this time there were few LVFs and LCIs and rare extracellular accumulations, suggesting a declined glandular activity. We conclude that the cellular activity of the pineal gland in R. losea, living under tropical climatic conditions, is synchronized with the annual changes of rainfall, which is apparently more important than the annual changes of photoperiod and temperature.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of pineal research 1 (1984), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Intercellular relationships of sympathetic nerve fibers and cells in pineal glands of Long-Evans rats and yellow-bellied country rats (Rattus losea Swinhoe) were studied with conventional electron microscopy. Typical synapses were found between adrenergic axon varicosities and pinealocytes. The synaptic cleft was 20–30 nm thick and contained granular or filamentous material of moderate electron density. Some small granulated vesicles attached to, or fused with, the presynaptic axolemma, a feature suggesting an exocytotic release of the vesicle content. The occurrence of membranous cisternae or tubules in the synaptic nerve ending may connote the phenomenon of synaptic vesicle recycling. Beneath the postsynaptic pinealocyte plasmalemma there was a dense plaque corresponding to the postsynaptic density of neurons. Possible origins and functional significance of the synapse-making nerve fibers are also discussed.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of neurocytology 1 (1972), S. 61-67 
    ISSN: 1573-7381
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Pinealocytes from adult guinea pigs contain conventional centrioles and microtubular sheaves composed of varying numbers of doublet and/or triplet tubules of indefinite length embedded in a dense matrix, which are assumed to be formed by elongation and dissociation of the centriolar wall. The observations suggest that one end of the wall of elongated centriolar formations may remain unbroken, while the other end may split into microtubular sheaves arranged in straight or skewed arrays. Additionally, maturing pinealocytes may possess two pairs of centrioles, of which some undergo lengthening and disintegration of the wall, giving rise to microtubular sheaves, while others remain unbroken. Cross-striated structures named denticulate or striped borders are often seen apposed to the elongated centriolar formations and are possible precursors of adjacent striated fibres.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Subcommissural organ ; Mouse ; Mucopolysaccharides ; Acid phosphatase activities
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In mice most of the ependymal cells of the subcommissural organ (SCO cells) are densely packed with dilated cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) containing either finely granular or flocculent materials. The well developed supra-nuclear Golgi apparatus consists of stacks of flattened saccules and small vesicles; the two or three outer Golgi saccules are moderately dilated and exhibit numerous fenestrations; occasional profiles suggesting the budding of coated vesicles and formation of membrane-bound dense bodies from the ends of the innermost Golgi saccules are seen. A few coated vesicles and membrane-bound dense bodies of various sizes and shapes are also found in the Golgi region. The contents of the dilated ER cisternae are stained with periodic acid-silver methenamine techniques. In the Golgi complex the two or three inner saccules are stained as deeply as the dense bodies, and the outer saccules are only slightly stained. The stained contents of ER cisternae are more electron opaque than those of the outer but less opaque than those of the inner Golgi saccules and the dense bodies. Acid phosphatase activities are localized in the dense bodies, some of the coated vesicles in the Golgi region, and in the one or two inner Golgi saccules. On the basis of these results the following conclusions have been reached: (1) In mouse SCO cells the finely granular and the flocculent materials in the lumen of ER cisternae contain a complex carbohydrate(s) which is secreted into the ventricle to form Reissner's fiber; (2) the secretory substance is assumed to be synthesized by the ER and stored in its cisternae, and the Golgi apparatus might play only a minor role, if any, in the elaboration of the secretory material; (3) most of the dense bodies in the mouse SCO cells are lysosomal in nature instead of being so-called dark secretory granules.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Leydig cells ; Seminal vesicle ; Pineal gland ; Golden hamster ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fine structural changes of testicular interstitial cells of Leydig and secretory cells of seminal vesicles were studied in golden hamsters under different functional states of the pineal gland. Experiments were performed in the reproductive season (summer months). In the hamsters blinded for 8 weeks the testes and the seminal vesicles were markedly atrophic, and the Leydig cells and the secretory cells of seminal vesicles were extremely involuted. By contrast, both types of cells in the pinealectomized or superior cervical ganglionectomized hamsters exhibited cytological features suggestive of an enhanced secretory activity. This study shows that functional activity of Leydig cells as well as secretory cells of seminal vesicles in the hamster may be depressed or augmented by stimulating or inhibiting the pineal antigonadal function, respectively, without performing hypophysectomy or hormonal administration.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Cellular inclusions ; Centrioles ; Striated fibrils ; Pinealocytes ; Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Electron microscopy has revealed the presence of a special cytoplasmic body in the centrosomal area of pinealocytes of the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. It consists of branching electron-dense ribbons embedded in a flocculent matrix of moderate electron density, and is tentatively named the ‘striped nebulous body’ (SNB). The dense ribbon usually appears as a thick band accompanied by a parallel thin one to one side. The SNB is not bounded by a membrane, and is roughly round or kidney-shaped. Closely associated with the SNB are centrioles, microtubular sheaves and striated fibrils, the latter two being centriolar derivatives. The observations suggest that the SNB might be formed by the amalgamation of these microtubular sheaves and striated fibrils. In golden hamsters, pinealocytes often have multiple centrioles and centriolar derivatives. The SNB of adult hamsters is seen in the pinealocytes of both sexes, irrespective of the season of the year and the activity of the pineal gland. The functional significance of this body remains to be studied.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: capsule ; lipid droplet ; Leydig cell ; monoclonal antibody ; immunocytochemistry ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: In this report, we provide direct evidence for the presence of a lipid droplet-associated capsule in hamster steroidogenic Leydig cells by using a monoclonal antibody A2. Leydig cells are characterized by containing many lipid droplets and having 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. Immunofluorescence staining with this antibody demonstrated a rim or capsule surrounding the lipid droplets in Leydig cells, a pattern not seen with anti-vimentin antibody. Immunogold labelling confirmed ultrastructurally that antibody binding was distributed on the lipid droplet surface. In order to investigate the possible function of the capsule, we examined the morphological changes induced in the capsule following stimulation with LH or dibutyryl cAMP; the fluorescent intensity of the capsule was seen to gradually decrease, accompanied by a decrease in number and size of lipid droplets, and the response to both reagents was time- and concentration-dependent. We thus conclude that hormonal stimulation resulting in the detachment of certain capsular proteins from the surface of lipid droplets is mediated via the cAMP signaling pathway and may allow cholesterol ester hydrolytic enzyme direct access to its substrate in the lipid droplet. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Testis ; Endoplasmic reticulum ; Golden hamster ; Macrophages ; Seasonal changes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The fine structure of the testicular interstitium was studied in normal adult golden hamsters sacrificed in the reproductive season (spring and summer) and in the winter. The Leydig cells in the reproductively active testes contain abundant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and numerous mitochondria. The ER occurs in the form of flattened cisternae and tubules, the former prevailing. The cisternae are extremely extensive and are partly granular and partly agranular, their ends being continuous with the tubular reticulum. Mitochondria intervening between the cisternae are closely associated with the agranular portions of the latter. Adjacent to the Golgi complex and continuous with the centrosome a unique filamentous body with a dense laminar core is often observed. In the regressive testes, the Leydig cells show a great reduction of cytoplasmic volume and a remarkable decline of the organelles, especially agranular tubules. The possible functional significance of the tubular and cisternal ER with the associated mitochondria is discussed in relation to the biosynthesis of androgens. Macrophages appear to constitute another important population of the interstitial cell clusters.
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