Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract In Penaeus japonicus, the tolerance to ammonia increased with the development from nauplius to late juvenile. The 48-h LC50 of ammonia in nauplii (III–V), 96-h LC50 in zoeae (I–III), mysis (I–III), post-larvae (PL1) and late juveniles (10.4±1.1 g) were respectively 5.0, 6.1 to 8.1, 9.4 to 10.9, 15.5 and 52.7 mg Nl-1 (0.5, 0.6 to 0.7, 0.9, 1.3 and 3.1 mg NH3−Nl-1). In a chronic experiment (20 d), the LC50 in post-larvae (PL1) was 19.1 (1.4) at 96 h and 16.2 mg Nl-1 (1.3 mg NH3−Nl-1) at 480 h. Osmoregulatory capacity (OC) was calculated as the osmotic gradient between the hemolymph and the external medium at given salinities. The effects of ammonia on OC, Na+ and Cl- regulation and gill Na+−K+ ATPase activity in late juveniles were examined in fullstrength seawater, SW (1050 mosm kg-1, 36‰ S) and in dilute SW (450 mosm kg-1, 15%.), after 48 or 96 h exposure to various concentrations of ammonia. Ambient ammonia disrupted both hypo- and hyper-osmoregulation; decreased OC resulted from impaired Na+ and Cl- regulation. Gill Na+−K+ ATPase activity increased in SW and was not affected in dilute SW. The decrease of OC was ammonia-dose-dependent. The threshold ammonia concentrations affecting hypo-OC and hyper-OC were, respectively, 16 (1.3) and 32 mg Nl-1 (2.3 NH3−Nl-1) for a 48 h exposure; these concentrations were lower than the 48-h LC50 value, 65.3 mg Nl-1 (3.5 NH3−Nl-1). The time course of exposure to sublethal ammonia (48 mg Nl-1) demonstrated that the effect on osmoregulation was time-dependent. This effect was also temporary, and the exposed shrimps recovered control OC values after removal of excessive ambient ammonia. The possibility of using OC as an indicator of physiological condition in osmoregulating crustaceans and the acting mode of ammonia on osmotic and ionic regulation are discussed.
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