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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The objective of the present experiment was to study the soft and hard tissure healing following treatment of experimentally induced peri-implantitis. 5 labrador dogs about 1-year old were used. The mandibular right and left 1st molars, 4th and 3rd premolars were removed, titanium fixtures (Brånemark System®) were installed, and standard abutements were connected in a 2nd stage procedure. After 3 months experimental peri-implantitis was induced by the placement of cotton floss ligatures in a submarginal position. 6 weeks later the ligatures were removed. 1 month after ligature removal, an antibiotic regimen was initiated. During a 3-week period, each dog was given tablets of amoxicillin and metronidazole. In the left side of the mandible, buccal and lingual mucoperiosteal flaps were elevated and granilation tissure within the bone craters curetted. The abutments were removed. The exposed outer surface and the internal part of the fixtures were carefully cleaned with a detergent (delmopinol HC1). An e-PTFE membrane was placed over each fixture and adjusted to cover the bone crater. New cover screws were fitted through the membranes to the cleaned fixtures. The implants were submerged and the flaps sutured. In the right side of the mandible no local treatment was performed. The dogs were sacrificed after 4 months and biopsies prepared for histological examination. The findings indicated that treatment of a peri-implantitis lesion, including comprehensive systemic antimicrobial therapy and cleaning of submerged implants resulted in (i) the elimination of the inflammatory process in the peri-implantitis tissues and (ii) the establishment of a dense connective tissue capsule in direct contact with the previously exposed surface of the implant system. It was also observed that (iii) new bone was frequently laid down on the pristine cover screws.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of the present experiment was to study the marginal peri-implant tissues at intentionally non-submerged (1-stage implants) and initially submerged and subsequently exposed implants (2-stage implants). 5 beagle dogs, about 1-year-old, were used. 3 months after the extraction of the mandibular premolars, fixtures of the Astra Tech Implants Dental System®, the Brånemark System® and the Bonefit®-ITI System were installed. In each mandibular quadrant, 1 fixture of each implant system was installed in a randomised order. The installation procedure followed the recommendations given in the manuals for each system. Thus, following installation, the bone crest coincided with the fixture margin of the Astra Tech Implants Dental System® and the Brånemark System®, whereas the border between the plasma sprayed and the machined surface of the Bonefit®-ITI implant system was positioned at the level of the bone crest. Following a healing period of 3 months, abutment connection was carried out in the 2-stage systems (the Astra Tech Implants Dental System® and the Brånemark system®). A 6-month period of plaque control was initiated. The animals were sacrificed and biopsies representing each implant region dissected. The tissue samples were prepared for light microscopy and exposed to histometric and morphometric measurements. The mucosal barrier which formed to the titanium surface following 1-stage and 2-stage implant installations comprised an epithelial and a connective tissue component, which for the 3 systems studied, had similar dimensions and composition. The amount of lamellar bone contained in the peri-implant region close to the fixture part of the 3-implant systems was almost identical. It is suggested that correctly performed implant installation may ensure proper conditions for both soft and hard tissue healing, and that the geometry of the titanium implant seems to be of limited importance.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of long-standing plaque on the gingiva and peri-implant mucosa. 5 beagle dogs were used in the study. The mandibular right premolars were extracted. 3 months later, 3 titanium fixtures were installed and after another 3 months, abutment connection was performed. Plaque control, in the implant as well as the contralateral tooth regions, was maintained during a 4-month period prior to the start of the main experiment. On Day 0, the teeth and implant sections were examined with respect to plaque and gingivitis. The plaque control program was terminated. The animals were subsequently fed a diet which allowed gross plaque accumulation. After 90 days of undisturbed plaque formation, the dogs were re-examined and biopsies harvested from implants and contralateral teeth. On day 90, all teeth and implants had accumulated large amounts of plaque. The soft tissue at implants and teeth bled on gentle probing. The histological examination of the gingiva and the peri-implant mucosa revealed:(i) both tissues contained an inflammatory cell infiltrate; ICT, (ii) the apical extension of ICT was more pronounced in the peri-implant mucosa than in the gingiva and (iii) the composition of the 2 lesions had many features in common.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of the present investigation was to assess the effect of de novo plaque formation on the gingiva and masticatory mucosa around teeth and implants. The study was performed in 5 beagle dogs which at the initiation of the experiment were 15 months old. During a preparatory period, the mandibular right premolars were extracted, 3 fixtures installed, abutment connection performed and a 4-month period of plaque control completed. A clinical examination was performed and biopsies of the second mandibular premolar (Pz) and the contralateral implant site (2P) were sampled. The dogs were allowed to form plaque during a period of 3 weeks. The clinical examination was repeated and biopsies harvested from the 2 remaining implants and the contralateral tooth sites. The tissue samples were prepared for histometric and morphometric analysis. Both the masticatory mucosa at implants and the gingiva responded to de novo plaque formation with the development of an inflammatory lesion. The size as well as the composition of the lesions in the 2 tissues had many features in common. It was concluded that the mucosa around implants and the gingiva around teeth had a similar potential to respond to early plaque formation.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Changes in the subgingival microbiota were studied during a 4-week period of plaque accumulation in beagles which initially had clean teeth and healthy gingiva. The effect of Clindamycin, Metronidazole and Vancomycin on the microbiota and associated gingivitis was also determined. Fifteen 1-year-old beagle dogs were used. During two subsequent periods of plaque accumulation, one without (control) and one with (test) antibiotic therapy, the animals were allowed to accumulate plaque. Plaque and gingivitis development was assessed by clinical measurements. Plaque samples were harvested from the gingival sulcus region and the percentage distribution of different bacteria was determined following aerobic and anaerobic incubation in selected media. Following microbial sampling, biopsies of the gingiva and surrounding soft and hard tissues were removed and the size of the inflammatory cell infiltrate assessed.The results demonstrated that beagle dogs with a normal gingiva harbored a microbiota within the gingival sulcus region dominated by gram-positive and gram-negative rods. After 4 weeks of undisturbed plaque accumulation, the number of sulcus bacteria had increased 100-fold. This increase was the result of a proliferation of gram-negative anaerobic rods. Concomitant with this change of the microflora, an inflammatory reaction developed in the gingiva. When the dogs during a similar 4-week period were given Metronidazole, no increase of the subgingival microbiota occurred. The inflammatory response of the gingiva was minute. Treatment with Clindamycin and Vancomycin did not entirely prevent the proliferation of the subgingival bacteria. The number of microorganisms harbored after 4 weeks of Clindamycin and Vancomycin treatment was, however, only 50% of that of the control period. Even if the number of colony forming units was similar at the end of Vancomycin and Clindamycin treatment the quality of the two subgingival microbiotas was different. Vancomycin treatment resulted in a plaque dominated by gram-negative bacteria while Clindamycin allowed gram-positive bacteria to increase in number. Gingival inflammation resulting in the Vancomycin group was more pronounced than the gingivitis response in the Clindamycin group.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The aim of the present investigation was to study (1) whether it was possible, by orthodontic tooth movement, to shift a supragingivally located plaque into a subgingival position, and (2) periodontal tissue reactions around tilted and intruded plaque-infected teeth.The experiments were performed on five dogs which were fed a diet that allowed dental plaque accumulation. The lower third premolars (3P and P3) were extracted and a phase of experimental periodontal breakdown was initiated on day 0. The periodontal pockets around the lower fourth premolars (4P and P4) were eliminated on day 210. During surgery, a notch was prepared in the root at the level of the marginal alveolar bone in order to facilitate measurements in radiographs and histological sections. After 60 days of healing with plaque control, i.e. on day 270, orthodontic appliances producing tipping forces on 4p and P4 were inserted. From day 270 to day 450, plaque was allowed to accumulate on 4P (test = T) while P4 (control = C) was brushed twice daily. The dogs were sacrificed on day 450. Following sacrifice, tissue sections comprising 4P, 1M and P4, M1 were produced and subjected to microscopic analysis.The present investigation showed that it was possible by orthodontic tooth movement to shift a supragingivally located plaque into a subgingival position. The mesial-apical movement of the plaque-infected teeth resulted in the formation of infrabony pockets. In four out of five dogs the displacement of the plaque-infected tooth resulted in an apical shift of the connective tissue attachment. When similar orthodontic forces were acting on plaque-free teeth, the tilting movement did not result in the formation of infrabony pockets. In only two dogs did the treatment result in loss of connective tissue attachment.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Twelve adult patients with severe chronic periodontitis were examined prior to treatment, and after 8 and 25 weeks following tbe start of treatment. Six subjects received tetracycline during weeks 1 and 2 and weeks 7 and 8, while the other six did not. All subjects were instructed in oral hygiene and received a series of scaling and root planing treatments on one side only of their dentition. The contralateral side received no scalings at any time. The experiment was designed to provide clinical and microbiological data at the 0-, 8- and 25-week intervals for at least six sites in each of four groups, namely untreated sites (T0S0), sites which were scaled only (T0S1), sites which received tetracycline only (T1S0) and sites which were scaled and were exposed to tetracycline (T1S1). In addition, biopsies of initially diseased sites which had been treated or left untreated were evaluated by light and electron microscopy at all time intervals.The results indicated that T0S0 sites remained more or less unchanged with respect to all parameters during the 25-week period, with the exception of a decrease in PII scores due to improved oral hygiene. T0S1 sites showed a marked clinical improvement between time 0 and 8 weeks, i.e. reduced PII and GI scores and reduced probing depth; the microbial flora showed an increase in the proportion of coccoid cells with a concomitant decrease in motile rods and spirochetes; the plasma cell-dominated infiltrated connective tissue (ICT) showed a significant decrease in the proportion of plasma cells with a corresponding increase in lymphocytes; evidence of collagen deposition was also observed histologically. This 8-week status persisted after 25 weeks, but in addition the tissues showed an increase in the proportion of fibrobiasts and a decrease in the proportion of lymphoblasts. T1S0 sites showed a similar improvement in the clinical and microbiological parameters at 8 weeks, but tbe ICT showed only a moderate reduction in the proportion of dead and unidentified cells. After 25 weeks, tbe clinical parameters remained unchanged from the 8-week interval, but the microbial composition and the tissue characteristics showed a significant rebound toward the values observed at baseline. T1S1 sites showed essentially similar changes in the clinical, microbiological and tissue characteristics as the T0S1 sites for all time intervals. However, in the presence of the antibiotic the 8-week proportions of coccoid cells were higher and those for motile rods and spirocbetes lower. Evaluation of all biopsied sites revealed a positive correlation between the proportion of plasma cells in the ICT and the proportion of spirochetes in the associated microflora.The results suggest that the microflora of healthy and periodontally diseased sites differ and that some of these differences are associated with detectable differences in the composition of the ICT. Mechanical debridement and/or treatment with tetracycline cause changes in the clinical, microbiological and histological parameters. Discontinuation of treatment with tetracycline leads to a return of the microbial and histological parameters toward values observed prior to treatment. These changes appear prior to detectable clinical changes.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The aim of the present investigation was to study some tissue characteristics of the ridge mucosa before and after implant installation. 9 partially edentulous patients were included in the study. At the time of fixture installation, 1 recipient site in each patient was selected for soft tissue biopsy. Abutment connection and restorative therapy were performed after 3–6 months. When the implants had been in function for about 6 months, a soft tissue sample was obtained from the keratinized peri-implant mucosa at the 1 implant site from which the first biopsy was obtained. Each biopsy was divided into 1 mesial and 1 distal portion. The mesial tissue portion was fixed in a buffered fixative and embedded in EPON®. Sections were produced, stained in PAS and toluidine blue and used for histometric and morphometric analyses. The distal portion of the biopsies were embedded, snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored in a freezer at −70°C. From each tissue portion, 15 sections were prepared in a cryostat and exposed to immunohistochemical staining. A panel of monoclonal antibodies was used and the avidin-biotin method for staining was applied. The sections were examined morphometricalty. Both tissues harbored a well keratinized oral epithelium and a connective tissue, the composition of which was close to identical in terms of collagen, cells and vascular structures. The peri-implant mucosa. however, also included a junctional epithelium which evidently allowed the penetration of products from the oral cavity. As a consequence, the periimplant mucosa in comparison to the masticatory mucosa was found to contain significantly enhanced numbers of different inflammatory cells.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The aim of the present trial was to study if carefully practiced supragingival plaque control influenced the subgingival microbiota at periodontal sites with suprabony, infrabony, or furcation pockets. 12 subjects, 5 males and 7 females aged 44 to 69 years (mean age 55 years) participated in the study. None of the participants had during the last 12 months received periodontal therapy, and none of the subjects had used antibiotics during a 3-month period preceding the study. Following a screening examination. 6 to 8 sites per subject were selected which had a probing depth of 〈inlineGraphic alt="geqslant R: gt-or-equal, slanted" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:03036979:JCPE934:ges" location="ges.gif"/〉5 mm. Among these sites. 1–3 sites had a supra-bony location. 1–3 sites had an infrabony location, and 1–3 sites were associated with a furcation defect. The selected sites were exposed to a baseline examination at which the following parameters were recorded: plaque, gingivitis, probing pocket depth and probing attachment level. A bacterial sample was obtained from each of the selected sites: 2 sterile paper points were inserted into the pocket and kept in place for 30 seconds. The paper point samples were removed, placed in a vial containing an anaerobically prepared transport medium, and processed using routine procedures. Following the baseline examination, each subject was given a case presentation, received thorough supragingival scaling and was instructed to practice proper plaque control with the use of toothbrush and dentifrice. During the subsequent 30 weeks they were recalled 2–3 × per week for professional tooth cleaning. Each session was handled by a dental hygienist and required about 15 min. Re-examinations were performed after 30 weeks. The findings indicated that professionally delivered and frequently repeated supragingival tooth cleaning, combined with careful self-performed plaque control had a marked effect on the subgingival microbiota of moderate to deep periodontai pockets. Thus, at sites with suprabony and infrabony pockets, as well as at furcation sites, the meticulous and prolonged supragingival plaque removal reduced the total number of microorganisms that could be harvested, as well as the % of sites with P. gingivalis.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The purpose of this study was to document and characterize epithelial remnants (EPRs) of the crestal periodontium of the deciduous dentition of a diphyodont and compare them with EPR units found in the corresponding area of the permanent dentition. 7 beagle dogs were used. At the age of 10 weeks (deciduous dentition) and 15 months (permanent dentition), respectively, a 6-week plaque control period was initiated. At the end of each plaque control period, biopsies were obtained from the mandibular 02P, 03P (deciduous dentition) and P3, P4 (permanent dentition) premolar regions and prepared for histologic analysis. 2 regions, (1) the supracrestal region and (2) the periodontal ligament region, were identified. The supracrestal region was divided into 4 compartments of equal height. The histologic parameters studied included the (i) EPR frequency: number of EPRs/mm of root length, (ii) EPR size, (iii) EPR-root distance, (iv) EPR-bone distance and (v) cell area. No differences were observed between the 2 dentitions with respect to the number, size and relative location of EPR units in the supracrestal regions or the periodontal ligament regions. Epithelial remnants of the supracrestal region in both dentitions tended to be more frequent, larger and positioned further from the root surface than the EPRs of the periodontal ligament region. EPR units of the periodontal ligament region were located significantly further from the bone in the deciduous dentition than in the permanent dentition. The cell area of EPRs did not differ between the 2 dentitions. It was concluded that EPRs are a normal component of the crestal periodontal tissues of the deciduous dentitions of the diphyodont beagle dog and they appear to be similar to those found in the permanent dentition of young dogs.
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