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  • 1
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Key words Fluid change ; Supine men ; Elevated lower legs ; Hypergravity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Reductions in leg fluid volume of about 1 l per leg or 10% of total leg volume have been reported during space flight. We wanted to test the hypothesis that a significant portion of these changes occur during the prelaunch and launch periods. Fluid volume changes in the lower leg were estimated in six men during a simulated Space Shuttle launch. After 2 h in the launch position, i.e. supine with elevated legs, the subjects were exposed to 500 s of two to three times increased g force in the anterio-posterior direction in a human centrifuge. During the prelaunch period one lower leg lost a mean of (113 SD 53) ml of fluid and there was little or no additional fluid reduction during the period of increased g force. This compares with the 178-ml reduction of lower leg volume that has been reported during the 1st day of Shuttle missions. We concluded that a significant portion of the fluid reduction observed in the lower leg during the early stages of space flight had already occurred before the launch.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-2614
    Keywords: occlusion pressure ; P0.1 ; monitor ; human ; automatic measurement ; mechanical load ; software
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective. To design and evaluate a clinical monitor of respiratory drive (P0.1) and other respiratory variables in a simple way, using a commercial ventilator. Methods. Nine healthy males were studied as they were breathing spontaneously in a Servo 900C Ventilator, at rest and during light exercise (50 W). The ventilator was slightly modified to improve its mechanical performance during spontaneous breathing, and was used as a measuring instrument. All the relevant information was retrieved, calculated and monitored by a PC. Respiratory drive was assessed as occlusion pressures from the inspiratory airway pressure signal. The equipment was compared with a two-way non-rebreathing laboratory system. Furthermore, negative and positive inspiratory pressures were applied from the ventilator, to study respiratory responses to mechanical loads. Results. At rest, the ventilator introduced a minor influence on inspiratory time and P0.1, but not in ventilatio n, tidal volume, expiratory duration and respiratory frequency. During exercise, the influence was more evident. This effect could also be noticed in the coefficients of variation. The responses to mechanical loads were easily recorded and can be used as a simple test of central load-compensating mechanisms. Conclusions. The ventilator, with limitations, may be an alternative to conventional techniques, especially in clinical studies of the central inspiratory activity with and without respiratory loading.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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