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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Respiratory neurons ; Antidromic mapping ; Spike-triggered averaging ; Respiratory control ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Axonal projections and synaptic connectivity of expiratory Bötzinger neurons with an augmenting firing pattern (Bot-Aug neurons) to neurons in the ipsilateral ventral respiratory group (VRG) were studied in anaesthetized cats. Antidromic mapping revealed extensive axonal arborizations of Bot-Aug neurons (24 of 45) to the rostral or caudal VRG, with some having arbors in both regions. Of 234 pairs of neurons studied with intracellular recording and spike-triggered averaging, monosynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) were evoked in 49/221 VRG neurons by 38/98 Bot-Aug neurons. The highest incidence of monosynaptic inhibition was found in inspiratory bulbospinal neurons (10 of 23 tested). Evidence was also found for monosynaptic inhibition, by a separate group of Bot-Aug neurons, of expiratory bulbospinal neurons (12/58), while excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were identified in another two of these neurons. In addition, monosynaptic IPSPs were recorded from 13 of 53 identified laryngeal motoneurons, and from 14 of 100 respiratory propriobulbar neurons. Presumptive disynaptic IPSPs were recorded from 11 of the 221 VRG neurons. We conclude that Bot-Aug neurons exert widespread inhibition on all major neuron categories in the ipsilateral VRG, and should be regarded as an important element in shaping the spatiotemporal output pattern of both respiratory motoneurons and premotor neurons.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Electrophysiology ; Medulla oblongata ; Spinal cord ; Interneurons ; Respiratory control ; Intracellular labelling ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Upper cervical inspiratory neurons form a distinct neuronal column located near the lateral edge of the intermediate grey matter in the rostral spinal segments. Previous studies conducted in cats have demonstrated synaptic inputs to these neurons from several respiratory related regions of the medulla, and long descending axonal projections mainly towards the motoneurons supplying the intercostal muscles. The aim of this study was to examine the electrophysiological and morphological properties of this propriospinal system in the rat. Extracellular recordings were made from 127 cervical inspiratory units, mainly in the C1 and C2 segments. Eighty-two percent could be antidromically activated from the C7/C8 border. No evidence of monosynaptic connection was obtained by cross-correlating the activity of some of these units with the discharge of the phrenic nerve. Intracellular recordings were made from seven neurons, three of which were labelled with biotinamide (neurobiotin). Long “survival times” after intracellular injections (up to 23 h) resulted in staining of axons for long distances, at least to the C5 segment. Each of the three labelled axons issued only one short collateral which arborized in the region of the phrenic nucleus. These results demonstrate that upper cervical inspiratory neurons in the rat have features similar to those previously described in the cat, including only a limited projection to the phrenic nucleus. In addition, this study provides the first morphological identification of these neurons.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Respiratory neurons ; Cervical spinal cord ; Axonal projection ; Phrenic motoneurons ; Intercostal motoneurons ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary This study was performed in order to describe the location, axonal projection and possible synaptic action of the inspiratory neurons recently described in the upper cervical cord. In 26 cats anaesthetized with Nembutal, extracellular recordings were made from 224 cervical inspiratory units which were found near the lateral border of lamina VII and formed a column extending from the caudal end of the nucleus retroambigualis at the C1 segment to the rostral half of the C3 segment. Most of the units (approximately 85%) could be excited antidromically from the thoracic cord. Antidromic mapping showed collateral branches to the C5 segment in the vicinity of the phrenic nucleus, occasionally crossing the midline. No synaptic connections with phrenic motoneurones could be revealed either by cross-correlation of the activity of the cervical units with the discharge of C5 phrenic root, or by spike-triggered averaging (STA) of the post-synaptic noise recorded intracellularly from phrenic motoneurons. Extensive branching was found in the examined T3–T5 segments with arborizations near the ipsilateral intercostal motor nuclei and often extending across the midline. Cross-correlation experiments did not show clear monosynaptic connections to the inspiratory intercostal motoneurons. Intracellular recording from intercostal motoneurons and STA resulted in a few (2 out of 37) small, probably disynaptic, e.p.s.p.s. It is concluded that the upper cervical neurons are involved in the control of phrenic and intercostal motoneurons, probably through a disynaptic pathway involving segmental interneurons.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Cerebral cortex ; Phrenic nerve ; Phrenic motoneurones ; Medullary pyramids ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Short latency responses were recorded from C5 phrenic roots and intracellularly from phrenic motoneurones following stimulation of the pericruciate cortex or medullary pyramids in cats anaesthetized with Nembutal or chloralose-urethane. Focal stimulation of the cortical surface (single pulses, 0.5–2 ms, 0.3–8 mA) during inspiration evoked EPSPs (latency 4.7 ± 1.7 ms, rise time 1.9 ± 1.1 ms, amplitude 0.22 to 3.94 mV) in 42% of motoneurones studied (n = 107). The EPSPs were absent, or on average 60% smaller, following stimulation during expiration. In all but two motoneurones, during both inspiration and expiration, hyperpolarizing potentials were observed either following the initial depolarization or alone. They could be reversed by hyperpolarizing current or chloride injection. Stimulation of the pyramidal tract at mid medullary level (1 to 3 pulses, 0.2 ms) evoked short latency excitation in phrenic motoneurones only with currents of more than 200 μA. Smaller stimuli applied to the medial reticular formation above the pyramidal tract evoked excitation (onset latency 1.5–3.2 ms) in which the earliest part was probably monosynaptic. These results show that the corticospinal responses in phrenic motoneurones are both excitatory and inhibitory. They are not transmitted through the pyramidal tract and are at least disynaptic. Excitation evoked from the medullary pyramidal tract can be explained by current spread beyond the pyramidal tract fibres.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. The present study describes the use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect weakly expressed neurotransmitter receptor mRNA in tissue micropunched from the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and other discrete areas of the medulla oblongata of the rat.2. Micropunches were made from 240 fJim transverse medullary sections. Punched regions included the RVLM, hypoglossal nucleus (XIIn), ventrolateral subnucleus of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN). RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed into cDNA, which was probed for the presence of seven genes: glyceralde-hyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), glucocorticoid receptor (GCR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MCR) and the adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) receptor subunit P2X2-1. Each transcript was detected using a semi-nested PCR protocol, which used three primers.3. Tyrosine hydroxylase was detected in the RVLM and NTS and PNMT was also detected in the RVLM, which agrees with the distribution of catecholamine neurons in the medulla. Expression of GCR mRNA was detected in the RVLM and the XIIn but not in the NTS (it was not probed for in the STN punches). The P2X2-1 receptor message was detected in all areas. Expression of MCR mRNA was detected in the RVLM only.4. This method offers a simple way to detect the presence of low-abundance receptor mRNA in discrete brain regions.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 68 (1956), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0034-5687
    Keywords: Carotid body chemoreceptors ; Cat ; Expiratory neurons ; Medulla oblongata
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0034-5687
    Keywords: Central respiratory neurons, inhibition in rhythm generation ; Control of breathing ; GABA ; Mammals ; Neurophysiological recording ; Pharmacological agents ; brain-stem spinal cord preparation (newborn cat) ; cat ; glycine agonists ; rhythm generation
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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