Background. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, China, was caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Anisodamine hydrobromide injection (AHI), the main ingredient of which is anisodamine, is a listed drug for improving microcirculation in China. Anisodamine can improve the condition of patients with COVID-19. Materials and Methods. Protein-protein interactions obtained from the String databases were used to construct the protein interaction network (PIN) of AHI using Cytoscape. The crucial targets of AHI PIN were screened by calculating three topological parameters. Gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses were performed. The intersection between the AHI component proteins and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) coexpression proteins was analyzed. We further investigated our predictions of crucial targets by performing molecular docking studies with anisodamine. Results. The PIN of AHI, including 172 nodes and 1454 interactions, was constructed. A total of 54 crucial targets were obtained based on topological feature calculations. The results of Gene Ontology showed that AHI could regulate cell death, cytokine-mediated signaling pathways, and immune system processes. KEGG disease pathways were mainly enriched in viral infections, cancer, and immune system diseases. Between AHI targets and ACE2 coexpression proteins, 26 common proteins were obtained. The results of molecular docking showed that anisodamine bound well to all the crucial targets. Conclusion. The network pharmacological strategy integrated molecular docking to explore the mechanism of action of AHI against COVID-19. It provides protein targets associated with COVID-19 that may be further tested as therapeutic targets of anisodamine.