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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1181
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A useful method, involving the combined use of the analysis and the finite-element methods, has been successfully applied to study temperature distributions on a finite domain with source arrays, when a moist-air mixture flows over the domain. Previously reported analysis/finite element combined methodology has been confined to the slow convergence in series solution of the analytical method. The restriction can be removed by using Aitken's delta-squared process for accelerating in this paper. The results obtained have been compared with author's previous experimental data, and found to be agreeable.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Key words Cerivastatin ; HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor ; Renal disease
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: The influence of impaired renal function on the pharmacokinetics of single and multiple doses of cerivastatin was evaluated in this non-randomized, non-blinded, 7-day, multiple-dose study. Methods: Thirty-five adults between the ages of 21 years and 75 years with normal renal function (CLCR 〉90 ml/min/1.73 m2, n=9), or patients with either mild (CLCR 61 ml/min/1.73 m2 to ≤90 ml/min/1.73 m2, n=9), moderate (CLCR 30 ml/min/1.73 m2 to ≤60 ml/min/1.73 m2, n=8), or severe (CLCR 〈30 ml/min/1.73 m2, but not on dialysis, n=9) renal impairment were given cerivastatin 0.3 mg daily each evening for 7 days. The steady-state pharmacokinetics of cerivastatin, including the area under the concentration–time curve (AUC)0–24, peak plasma concentration (Cmax), time to reach Cmax (tmax) and elimination half-life (t1/2), were determined on day 1 and day 7. The logarithm of the pharmacokinetic variables was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Safety assessments included physical examination, fundoscopy, vital signs, electrocardiogram (ECG), adverse events, and laboratory safety indices. Results: The day-1 AUC in patients with mild renal impairment was similar to that of patients with normal function (19.6 μg/h/l vs 19.2 μg/h/l, respectively). However, the AUC for cerivastatin patients with moderate or severe renal impairment was 40–60% higher (30.8 μg/h/l and 29.0 μg/h/l, respectively). Cmax values for patients with normal, mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment were 3.3, 3.4, 4.6, and 5.2 μg/l, respectively. This modest increase in plasma cerivastatin levels is nearly equivalent to a 0.4-mg daily dose, which has been recently approved in the United States. The mean t1/2 of cerivastatin was less than 4.5 h in all patients, indicating that renal dysfunction did not promote cerivastatin accumulation. This observation was confirmed by the finding that the cerivastatin plasma levels on day 1 and day 7 were similar in all patient groups. Furthermore, the mean AUC and Cmax values for both demethylated and hydroxylated cerivastatin were similar in the patients with the most severe renal dysfunction to the corresponding values in healthy subjects. Cerivastatin was well tolerated in all patients irrespective of renal function. Adverse events were observed in 37% of the subjects; nearly all were mild and generally of short duration, and most resolved without intervention. Incidence of adverse events was similar across all three renal groups and the control group. There were no clinically significant laboratory changes other than those consistent with renal disease. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that dosage adjustment of the daily 0.3-mg cerivastatin dose in patients with significant renal impairment is likely unnecessary.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    Keywords: Dissimilatory ammonia-forming pathway ; EPR ; Hexaheme ; Nitric oxide intermediate ; Nitrite reductase
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Ion chromatography ; Indirect photometric detection ; Phenylalanine ; Alkali metals
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary In this paper the use of phenylalanine as eluent for indirect photometric chromatography is reported. The effects of the mobile phase pH, phenylalanine concentration etc. on the eluent strength and the sensitivity of detection are discussed. Using 3 mM aqueous solution of phenylalanine at pH 3.0 containing 1% methanol as the mobile phase, a mixture of alkali metals was separated and sodium ion concentration in water was determined on a low-capacity cation-exchange column.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Solubility parameters ; Structure parameters
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The application and significance of the solubility parameter are detailed for chromatographic systems. A critical review of the general concept and several empirical and semi-empirical equations for the solubility parameter are reported. Using the basic theory and a systematic study of the main factors affecting total (or expanded) solubility parameters (δT) along with boiling points and molar volumes, we found correlations between four kinds of solubility parameter obtained by different methods, which unify their calculation and establish an equation for the calculation of δT, successfully applying it to retention prediction in GC and LC. The results show our approach is more accurate and simplifies to a two-parameter model involving fundamental physicol-chemical parameters. In addition, the variation of δT with the carbon number of homologous series was investigated, mathematical models were derived by multi-regression analysis.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Selenium(IV)-tellurium(IV) separation ; Flow-through coulometric detector
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The chromatographic behaviour of selenium and tellurium has been investigated with two different reversed-phase chromatographic methods, using P-350 (methyl-bi-isooctyl phosphate) and TBP (tributyl phosphate) as the stationary phases. HCl, HBr, NaCl and NaBr were employed as mobile phase components in both methods. The results suggested that the separation mechanism corresponds to the formation of TeCl (or TeBr) and P-350H (or TBPH) ion associate. A coulometric flow-through detector was applied to determine Se(IV) and Te(IV). Complete separation and quantitative determination of Se and Te could be achieved in 10 minutes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0009-8981
    Keywords: Acetylsalicylic acid ; Ischemic stroke ; Thromboxane B"2
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-7330
    Keywords: preimplantation genetic diagnosis ; polymerase chain reaction ; single cell diagnosis ; allele dropout ; assisted reproductive technologies ; cystic fibrosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Purpose: A single-cell diagnosis procedure using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology was developed to simultaneously detect two cystic fibrosis (CF) mutations (DF-508, W1282X). Methods: Human viable, arrested, and nonviable embryos and immature, and nonfertilized oocytes donated by our patients were used to detect apoptosis by Tunel labeling, annexin staining, and single-cell reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Using cells carrying the DF-508 mutation, the PCR signal efficiency for the affected homozygous, normal homozygous, and carrier heterozygote cell populations were 91%, 81%, and 92%, respectively. The total combined PCR efficiency was 87.7% and the ADO rate was 5.7%. For W1282X carrier heterozygote cells, the PCR signal efficiency was 82.0% and the ADO rate was 8.7%. Conclusions: Methods have been developed to detect two common mutations simultaneously for CF in single-cell assays. The high signal efficiencies and low ADO rates obtained in these tests allow those embryos from couples wishing to avert the transmission of this serious genetic disease to their offspring to be screened by preimplantation genetic diagnosis.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The mechanism(s) leading to the development of late phase allergic reactions is (are) unknown. Previous studies have indicated that a relationship between serum IgE and the late phase exists.To explore the relationships between allergen-specific immunoglobulins in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and the magnitude of airflow limitation during the late phase response to inhaled allergen.Ragweed-specific IgE, IgA, secretory IgA (sIgA) and IgG were measured in BAL fluid and in the serum 1–5 weeks before whole lung antigen challenge with ragweed extract, in 16 ragweed allergic asthmatics. In addition, BAL and serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and BAL fibrinogen levels were determined and BAL cells counted and differentiated. The latter procedures were repeated in a second BAL performed 24 h after the end of the ragweed challenge. After the challenge, lung function was monitored hourly for 8 h, to record the magnitude of airflow limitation.Ragweed-specific immunoglobulins were detected in 25% to 37.5% of BAL samples. Compared to the subjects with undetectable BAL fluid ragweed-specific IgE levels at baseline, those with detectable antibodies had stronger late phase reactions as determined by the nadir of FEV1 between hours 4 and 8 after the ragweed inhalation challenge (P = 0.0007). Allergen-induced changes in BAL ECP and fibrinogen levels were also higher in those subjects with detectable ragweed-specific IgE in baseline fluids (P = 0.03 and P = 0.005, respectively). Significant relationships between BAL antigen-specific IgA, serum ragweed-specific IgE and IgA and the late phase reaction were also found.The results of this study point towards the possibility that allergen-specific IgE and IgA may be independently involved in the pathogenesis of the late phase reaction. This notion merits further exploration.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland: an entity with aggressive clinical behaviour and distinctive cytokeratin expression profiles Aims: Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is uncommon. This study aims to identify the clinicopathological features and the pattern of expression of cytokeratins and oncoproteins in this tumour. Methods and results: Histological slides from Chinese patients with thyroid cancer treated in our institution from 1980 to 1999 were reviewed. Patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid were identified and their clinical records were analysed. The expression of cytokeratins (CKs), p53 and p21 in these cases were also studied by an immunohistochemical method. Four women (mean age 71 years) with squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid were found. The main presenting features were signs and symptoms of airway obstruction in three patients and neck swelling in one. The tumours were located at the right lobe (n=2), left lobe (n=1) or in both lobes of the thyroid (n=1). One patient died shortly after admission and the other three died within 4 months after thyroidectomy. The p53 protein was positive in 50% (2/4) of the tumours and p53+ tumours were poorly differentiated. The tumours were negative for p21. CK19 was expressed in all the tumours while CK7 expression was noted in 3/4 of the tumours. One carcinoma showed focal positivity to CK18. The tumours were negative for CKs 1, 4, 6, 10/13 and 20. The pattern of cytokeratin expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland was different from carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE) of the thyroid gland and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusions: Squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid has aggressive clinical behaviour and characteristic CK expression pattern. p53 over-expression in these tumours was associated with tumour differentiation.
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