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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), a key signal-transduction enzyme, increases the conversion of guanosine-5'-triphosphate to cGMP upon binding of nitric oxide (NO). Endothelial dysfunction and/or reduced NO signaling have been implicated in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis and complications of diabetes and have been associated with other disease states and aging. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulators are small-molecule drugs that bind sGC and enhance NO-mediated cGMP signaling. The pharmacological characterization of IW-1973 [1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-(((5-fluoro-2-(1-(2-fluorobenzyl)-5-(isoxazol-3-yl)-1 H -pyrazol-3-yl) pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)methyl)propan-2-ol], a novel clinical-stage sGC stimulator under clinical investigation for treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and diabetic nephropathy, is described. In the presence of NO, IW-1973 stimulated sGC in a human purified enzyme assay and a HEK-293 whole cell assay. sGC stimulation by IW-1973 in cells was associated with increased phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein. IW-1973, at doses of 1–10 mg/kg, significantly lowered blood pressure in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. In a Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension model, IW-1973 significantly reduced blood pressure, inflammatory cytokine levels, and renal disease markers, including proteinuria and renal fibrotic gene expression. The results were affirmed in mouse lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and rat unilateral ureteral obstruction renal fibrosis models. A quantitative whole-body autoradiography study of IW-1973 revealed extensive tissue distribution and pharmacokinetic studies showed a large volume of distribution and a profile consistent with predicted once-a-day dosing in humans. In summary, IW-1973 is a potent, orally available sGC stimulator that exhibits renoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects in nonclinical models.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3565
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-0103
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  Deutscher Kongress für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie (DKOU 2018); 20181023-20181026; Berlin; DOCGF16-490 /20181106/
    Publication Date: 2018-11-07
    Keywords: osteochondral defect ; porous tantalum ; collagen membrane ; BMSCs ; tissue engineering ; biphasic scaffold ; ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 3
  • 4
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; CELL ; LUNG ; LUNG-CANCER ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; RISK ; RISKS ; SITE ; GENE ; GENES ; GENOME ; PROTEIN ; TISSUE ; MARKER ; TISSUES ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; ACID ; COUNTRIES ; REGION ; FRANCE ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; RECEPTORS ; SMOKERS ; DEPENDENCE ; SNPs ; NEURONS ; CANDIDATE ; ENGLAND ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; NUCLEOTIDE ; FAGERSTROM TOLERANCE QUESTIONNAIRE ; HAPLOTYPE MAP
    Abstract: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death worldwide, with over one million cases annually(1). To identify genetic factors that modify disease risk, we conducted a genome- wide association study by analysing 317,139 single- nucleotide polymorphisms in 1,989 lung cancer cases and 2,625 controls from six central European countries. We identified a locus in chromosome region 15q25 that was strongly associated with lung cancer ( P= 9 x 10(-10)). This locus was replicated in five separate lung cancer studies comprising an additional 2,513 lung cancer cases and 4,752 controls ( P = 5 x 10(-20) overall), and it was found to account for 14%( attributable risk) of lung cancer cases. Statistically similar risks were observed irrespective of smoking status or propensity to smoke tobacco. The association region contains several genes, including three that encode nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits ( CHRNA5, CHRNA3 and CHRNB4). Such subunits are expressed in neurons and other tissues, in particular alveolar epithelial cells, pulmonary neuroendocrine cells and lung cancer cell lines(2,3), and they bind to N'- nitrosonornicotine and potential lung carcinogens(4). A non- synonymous variant of CHRNA5 that induces an amino acid substitution ( D398N) at a highly conserved site in the second intracellular loop of the protein is among the markers with the strongest disease associations. Our results provide compelling evidence of a locus at 15q25 predisposing to lung cancer, and reinforce interest in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as potential disease candidates and chemopreventative targets(5)
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18385738
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  • 5
    Abstract: Recent advances in genomic research have demonstrated a substantial role for genomic factors in predicting response to cancer therapies. Researchers in the fields of cancer pharmacogenomics and pharmacoepidemiology seek to understand why individuals respond differently to drug therapy, in terms of both adverse effects and treatment efficacy. To identify research priorities as well as the resources and infrastructure needed to advance these fields, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop titled "Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Setting a Research Agenda to Accelerate Translation" on July 21, 2009, in Bethesda, MD. In this commentary, we summarize and discuss five science-based recommendations and four infrastructure-based recommendations that were identified as a result of discussions held during this workshop. Key recommendations include 1) supporting the routine collection of germline and tumor biospecimens in NCI-sponsored clinical trials and in some observational and population-based studies; 2) incorporating pharmacogenomic markers into clinical trials; 3) addressing the ethical, legal, social, and biospecimen- and data-sharing implications of pharmacogenomic and pharmacoepidemiologic research; and 4) establishing partnerships across NCI, with other federal agencies, and with industry. Together, these recommendations will facilitate the discovery and validation of clinical, sociodemographic, lifestyle, and genomic markers related to cancer treatment response and adverse events, and they will improve both the speed and efficiency by which new pharmacogenomic and pharmacoepidemiologic information is translated into clinical practice.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20944079
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  • 6
    Keywords: UNITED-STATES ; BEHAVIOR ; SMOKERS ; CLUSTER ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; GENETIC-VARIATION ; NICOTINE DEPENDENCE ; INTERPLAY ; CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 ; QUANTITY
    Abstract: Background: Recent meta-analyses show strong evidence of associations among genetic variants in CHRNA5 on chromosome 15q25, smoking quantity, and lung cancer. This meta-analysis tests whether the CHRNA5 variant rs16969968 predicts age of smoking cessation and age of lung cancer diagnosis. Methods: Meta-analyses examined associations between rs16969968, age of quitting smoking, and age of lung cancer diagnosis in 24 studies of European ancestry (n = 29 072). In each dataset, we used Cox regression models to evaluate the association between rs16969968 and the two primary phenotypes (age of smoking cessation among ever smokers and age of lung cancer diagnosis among lung cancer case patients) and the secondary phenotype of smoking duration. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed with the Cochran Q test. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The rs16969968 allele (A) was associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91 to 0.98, P =.0042), and the AA genotype was associated with a four-year delay in median age of quitting compared with the GG genotype. Among smokers with lung cancer diagnoses, the rs16969968 genotype (AA) was associated with a four-year earlier median age of diagnosis compared with the low-risk genotype (GG) (HR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.12, P = 1.1*10(-5)). Conclusion: These data support the clinical significance of the CHRNA5 variant rs16969968. It predicts delayed smoking cessation and an earlier age of lung cancer diagnosis in this meta-analysis. Given the existing evidence that this CHRNA5 variant predicts favorable response to cessation pharmacotherapy, these findings underscore the potential clinical and public health importance of rs16969968 in CHRNA5 in relation to smoking cessation success and lung cancer risk.d: Recent meta-analyses show strong evidence of associations among genetic variants in CHRNA5 on chromosome 15q25, smoking quantity, and lung cancer. This meta-analysis tests whether the CHRNA5 variant rs16969968 predicts age of smoking cessation and age of lung cancer diagnosis.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25873736
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  • 7
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is sensitive to ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ALK inhibitors) such as crizotinib, but resistance invariably develops, often with progression in the brain. Ceritinib is a more potent ALK inhibitor than crizotinib in vitro, crosses the blood-brain barrier in vivo, and shows clinical responses in patients with crizotinib-resistant disease. We aimed to assess whole-body activity of ceritinib in both ALK inhibitor-pretreated and ALK inhibitor-naive patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC. METHODS: ASCEND-1 was an open-label, phase 1 trial that recruited patients from 20 academic hospitals or cancer centres in 11 countries in Europe, North America, and Asia-Pacific. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with ALK-rearranged locally advanced or metastatic cancer that had progressed despite standard therapy (or for which no effective standard therapy existed), who had at least one measurable lesion at baseline. The primary objective (to determine the maximum tolerated dose) has been reported previously. This updated analysis includes all patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC given oral ceritinib at the recommended dose of 750 mg/day in the dose-escalation and expansion phases. Here we report the secondary outcomes of overall response, duration of response, and progression-free survival, analysed in all patients who received at least one 750 mg dose of ceritinib. Exploratory analyses included retrospective analysis of intracranial activity by independent neuroradiologists, in patients with untreated or locally treated neurologically stable brain metastases at baseline. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of ceritinib. This study is no longer recruiting patients; however, treatment and follow-up are ongoing. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01283516. FINDINGS: Between Jan 24, 2011, and July 31, 2013, 255 patients were enrolled and received at least one dose of ceritinib 750 mg/day, of whom 246 had ALK-rearranged NSCLC. At data cutoff (April 14, 2014), median follow-up was 11.1 months (IQR 6.7-15.2) and 147 (60%) patients had discontinued treatment, 98 (40%) as a result of disease progression. An overall response was reported in 60 (72% [95% CI 61-82]) of 83 ALK inhibitor-naive patients and 92 (56% [49-64]) of 163 ALK inhibitor-pretreated patients. Median duration of response was 17.0 months (95% CI 11.3-non-estimable [NE]) in ALK inhibitor-naive patients and 8.3 months (6.8-9.7) in ALK inhibitor-pretreated patients. Median progression-free survival was 18.4 months (95% CI 11.1-NE) in ALK inhibitor-naive patients and 6.9 months (5.6-8.7) in ALK inhibitor-pretreated patients. Of 94 patients with retrospectively confirmed brain metastases and at least one post-baseline MRI or CT tumour assessment, intracranial disease control was reported in 15 (79% [95% CI 54-94]) of 19 ALK inhibitor-naive patients and in 49 (65% [54-76]) of 75 ALK inhibitor-pretreated patients. Of these 94 patients, 11 had measurable brain lesions and no previous radiotherapy to the brain, six of whom achieved a partial intracranial response. Serious adverse events were recorded in 117 (48%) of 246 patients. The most common grade 3-4 laboratory abnormalities were increased alanine aminotransferase (73 [30%] patients) and increased aspartate aminotransferase (25 [10%]). The most common grade 3-4 non-laboratory adverse events were diarrhoea and nausea, both of which occurred in 15 (6%) patients. Two on-treatment deaths during the study were deemed to be related to study drug by the investigators, one due to interstitial lung disease and one as a result of multiorgan failure that occurred in the context of infection and ischaemic hepatitis. INTERPRETATION: The durable whole-body responses reported, together with the intracranial activity, support a clinical benefit for treatment with ceritinib in patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC who have received crizot
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26973324
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  • 8
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Recent meta-analyses show that individuals with high risk variants in CHRNA5 on chromosome 15q25 are likely to develop lung cancer earlier than those with low-risk genotypes. The same high-risk genetic variants also predict nicotine dependence and delayed smoking cessation. It is unclear whether smoking cessation confers the same benefits in terms of lung cancer risk reduction for those who possess CHRNA5 risk variants versus those who do not. METHODS: Meta-analyses examined the association between smoking cessation and lung cancer risk in 15 studies of individuals with European ancestry who possessed varying rs16969968 genotypes (N=12,690 ever smokers, including 6988 cases of lung cancer and 5702 controls) in the International Lung Cancer Consortium. RESULTS: Smoking cessation (former vs. current smokers) was associated with a lower likelihood of lung cancer (OR=0.48, 95%CI=0.30-0.75, p=0.0015). Among lung cancer patients, smoking cessation was associated with a 7-year delay in median age of lung cancer diagnosis (HR=0.68, 95%CI=0.61-0.77, p=4.9 *10-10). The CHRNA5 rs16969968 risk genotype (AA) was associated with increased risk and earlier diagnosis for lung cancer, but the beneficial effects of smoking cessation were very similar in those with and without the risk genotype. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that quitting smoking is highly beneficial in reducing lung cancer risks for smokers regardless of their CHRNA5 rs16969968 genetic risk status. Smokers with high-risk CHRNA5 genotypes, on average, can largely eliminate their elevated genetic risk for lung cancer by quitting smoking- cutting their risk of lung cancer in half and delaying its onset by 7years for those who develop it. These results: 1) underscore the potential value of smoking cessation for all smokers, 2) suggest that CHRNA5 rs16969968 genotype affects lung cancer diagnosis through its effects on smoking, and 3) have potential value for framing preventive interventions for those who smoke.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27543155
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  • 9
    Keywords: carcinoma ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; MUTATIONS ; DNA-DAMAGE ; POPULATIONS ; adenocarcinoma ; METAANALYSIS ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; COMMON GENETIC-VARIATION ; POLYMORPHIC STOP CODON
    Abstract: We conducted imputation to the 1000 Genomes Project of four genome-wide association studies of lung cancer in populations of European ancestry (11,348 cases and 15,861 controls) and genotyped an additional 10,246 cases and 38,295 controls for follow-up. We identified large-effect genome-wide associations for squamous lung cancer with the rare variants BRCA2 p.Lys3326X (rs11571833, odds ratio (OR) = 2.47, P = 4.74 x 10(-20)) and CHEK2 p.Ile157Thr (rs17879961, OR = 0.38, P = 1.27 x 10(-13)). We also showed an association between common variation at 3q28 (TP63, rs13314271, OR = 1.13, P = 7.22 x 10(-10)) and lung adenocarcinoma that had been previously reported only in Asians. These findings provide further evidence for inherited genetic susceptibility to lung cancer and its biological basis. Additionally, our analysis demonstrates that imputation can identify rare disease-causing variants with substantive effects on cancer risk from preexisting genome-wide association study data.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24880342
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  • 10
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; carcinoma ; RISK ; PROTEIN ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; VARIANTS ; METAANALYSIS ; 5P15.33 ; CEP57
    Abstract: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Although several genetic variants associated with lung cancer have been identified in the past, stringent selection criteria of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) can lead to missed variants. The objective of this study was to uncover missed variants by using the known association between lung cancer and first-degree family history of lung cancer to enrich the variant prioritization for lung cancer susceptibility regions. In this two-stage GWAS study, we first selected a list of variants associated with both lung cancer and family history of lung cancer in four GWAS (3,953 cases, 4,730 controls), then replicated our findings for 30 variants in a meta-analysis of four additional studies (7,510 cases, 7,476 controls). The top ranked genetic variant rs12415204 in chr10q23.33 encoding FFAR4 in the Discovery set was validated in the Replication set with an overall OR of 1.09 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.14, P = 1.63 x 10(-4) ). When combining the two stages of the study, the strongest association was found in rs1158970 at Ch4p15.2 encoding KCNIP4 with an OR of 0.89 (95% CI = 0.85, 0.94, P = 9.64 x 10(-6) ). We performed a stratified analysis of rs12415204 and rs1158970 across all eight studies by age, gender, smoking status, and histology, and found consistent results across strata. Four of the 30 replicated variants act as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) sites in 1,111 nontumor lung tissues and meet the genome-wide 10% FDR threshold.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25644374
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