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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Virchows Archiv 362 (1974), S. 13-21 
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The microscopic morphology, histochemistry and electron microscopy of a non-ossifying fibroma of the upper metaphysis of the femur in a sixteen-year-old girl, is presented. The authors describe a fibroblastic cell type as the basis of the neoplasia which transforms itself into a foam cell loaded with lipids. Histochemically it is characterized by high activity in alkaline phosphatases, ATP-ases, fructose 1–6 diphosphatase and NADH-NADPH tetrazolio reductases. Electron microscopy identifies extremely active fibroblastic cells with a synthesis of proteic and lipid material which transforms them into foam cells. The lipids appear irregularly enveloped in laminar systems. There is also a deposit of hemosiderine in certain fibroblasts. Non-ossifying fibroma differs from the metaphyseal fibrous bone defect as the fibroblasts show a higher activity for alkaline phosphatase and lipids are stored in the cytoplasma.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Virchows Archiv 366 (1975), S. 1-14 
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Two cases of malignant mesodermic tumours of the human mammary gland with osteogenic and chondrogenic structures were analysed by optical and electronic microscopical means. One of them was associated with an adenocarcinoma of the gland. The histological pattern was similar to that of those cases previously examined under the optical microscope in the mammary gland and in extraskeletal osteogenic sarcomas of soft tissues. When investigated under the electron microscope, the chondroblasts possessed a highly developed RER in active synthesis with an amorphous material which contributed to the building up of the ground substance matrix of the tumorous cartilage. Osteoid fields with scattered osteoblasts appear throughout the tumorous stroma and were associated with calcium deposits. They were continuous with fibroblasts and mesenchymal undifferentiated cells of a very immature character. Giant cells of osteoclastic type were included within the mononucleated mesenchymal cells mimicking bone osteoclastoma. The presence of all these cell types suggests the existence of a common malignant origin, the stem cell being differentiated into epithelial carcinomatous and mesenchymal sarcomatous chondral and osteogenic tissues.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Eosinophilic granuloma ; Frontal lobe ; Histiocytosis-X ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The clinical symptoms, pathological findings and surgical treatment of a case of primary frontal lobe eosinophilic granuloma are presented. Initially a frontal mass was detected that clinically seemed like a low-growth tumor. After operation, the histological, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies showed positive acid phosphatase, α-naftil-esterase, oil-red and PAS reactions of tumoral cells and the presence of rod-shaped bodies in proliferative histiocytes, all which confirmed the pathological diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma. Other osseous or visceral histiocytosis-X signs were not observed. The patient remains asymptomatic after a postoperative follow-up of 2 years.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Ewing's sarcoma ; Bone ; Histology ; Prognosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A retrospective multifactorial analysis on 261 previously untreated patients with Ewing's sarcoma (Es) of bone has been carried out in order to ascertain the prognostic value of several histological variables on survival. Among those cases accepted as Es, 208 (80% of the patients) were considered to be “typical Es”, while 40 (15%) displayed a large cell predominance, being subclassified as “atypical large cell Es”. Furthermore, 13 patients (5%) possessed tumours of endothelial-like appearance. Eleven cases which displayed a mixed histological configuration were finally included within one of the three previous groups according to their predominant histological pattern. After adjustment for therapeutic regimens and initial location of the tumour, only two histological characteristics remain significant; i.e. the presence of necrosis (p=0.002) and, to a lesser degree, the presence of filagree “en damier” pattern (p=0.08), both of which are of poor prognostic value. From this study, it can be assumed that the morphological (and possibly histogenetical) heterogeneity of Es of bone has no prognostic influence on survival.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Neuroectodermal bone tumours ; Immunochemistry ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Peripheral neuroectodermal tumours (PNET) of bone are rare and mimick those seen in soft tissue (peripheral neuroepithelioma of soft tissue). Their differential diagnosis from Ewing's sarcoma (Es) is extremely difficult by optical means. Here we report 14 new cases of PNET of bone (other than Askin's neoplasm) located primarily in the limbs, pelvic girdle and scapula. Clinically and radiologically they displayed Ewing's sarcoma-like features: mean age was 14.4 years, male/ female ratio being 3:11. Metastasis was present in 6 cases at diagnosis (5 with bone metastasis). Prognosis was poor; thirteen patients died; only one with a metatarsal located tumour is alive and free of disease. The mean survival rate was 25 months following diagnosis and treatment with radio- and multimodal chemotherapy. Histologically the 14 cases displayed Homer-Wright rosettes and pseudorosette-like structures, as well as a fibrillary background and lobular pattern. Immunohistochemistry revealed positivity in a number of neural markers when using paraffin-embedded material: NSE, B-2-microglobuline, HNK-1 (leu-7) and E-36 antibodies. At EM level the cell cytoplasms evidenced dense-core granules with neurosecretion, neurotubules and intermediate filaments like those seen in peripheral neuroepithelioma.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: S-100 Protein ; Langerhans cells ; Nasopharyngeal carcinoma ; Prognosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary An immunohistochemical study of S-100 protein in 43 nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) of known clinical evolution (33 primary and 10 metastatic) is presented. Sixty per cent of primary site cases as well as all metastatic forms showed S-100 protein positive cells intermingled with tumour cells. These S-100 positive elements were identified as Langerhans cells. No significant differences were found when correlating S-100 protein positivity and histological NPC variants, neither in age nor in sex of patients. Statistical analysis failed to demonstrate any positive correlation between S-100 protein reactivity and clinical survival.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Malignant fibrous histiocytoma ; p53 ; mdm2 ; Prognosis and immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  TP53 and MDM2 genes and their protein expression were evaluated in frozen and paraffin-embedded tissue from 27 patients with malignant fibrous histiocytoma to elucidate the relationship between them, their implication in tumor progression mechanisms and their possible diagnostic-prognostic value in malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA were used to establish two TP53 mutations (7.4%): a point mutation and a 63-bp duplication. Amplification of the MDM2 gene was observed in two tumors (7.4%) by means of Southern-blot analysis, one of them also carrying the TP53 point mutation. Immunohistochemical and Western-blot techniques were used to study nuclear accumulation of p53 and mdm2 proteins: 11 cases (40.7%) with p53 protein expression and thirteen cases (48.1%) with mdm2 protein expression were detected. We confirmed overexpression of mdm2 protein in eight of ten cases (80%) with p53 protein expression without TP53 gene mutation. Statistical analysis shows that simultaneous co-expression of p53 and mdm2 in malignant fibrous histiocytoma is significantly correlated with survival in absence of gene alteration in contrast to the lack of statistical correlation with survival of p53 protein expression alone.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Ewing's sarcoma ; Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) ; Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is of value for the differential diagnosis of Ewing's tumor of bone. Based upon 9 new cases which were observed with SEM and TEM (transmission electron microscopy), this paper puts into consideration, for the first time, the SEM ultrastructure of Ewing's sarcoma (both variants; typical Ewing's sarcoma and the large cell Ewing's sarcoma). Furthermore, a new case of vascular Ewing's sarcoma, studied with TEM, is discussed and included in the differential diagnosis with other round cell sarcomas of bone. Both Ewing's sarcoma types evidence common ultrastructural characteristics, but the atypical variant (large cell type) shows a greater variation in cell size and contour. The cell surfaces displayed smooth structures, interrupted only by clusters of short, stub-like microvilli. Isolated cilia were also observed. Variations in cell contour and size within the same tumour are also induced through intensive chemotherapy, as noted in one of our cases. SEM seems to be suitable for the differentiation of Ewing's tumours from other primary malignancies of the bone marrow, as is the case of the so-called “reticulum cell sarcoma of bone” or malignant non-Hodgkin lymphoma. SEM studies associated with TEM give further support to the mesenchymal origin of this neoplasm.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Esthesioneuroblastoma ; Neurosecretion ; Melanosomes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Esthesioneuroblastoma (ESTH) is a neuroepithelial-cell-derived neoplasm of the olfactory mucosa composed of homogeneous small round cells which contain neurosecretory granules. Melanin has been detected in such tumours only occasionally. Here we describe a new case of ESTH with divergent differentiation. The primary neoplasm was found in a 67 year-old female, involving the left nasal and maxillary sinus; she died of cerebral metastasis ten months after diagnosis. Histologically only small round cells were seen, with S-100 and NSE positivity. Electron microscopy revealed neurosecretory granules and filaments, as well as the occasional presence of melanosomes. A nude mice xenograft line has been established, and is presently in its ninth transfer. Two cell types are present: small round-to-spindle shaped cells with neural features, and large epithelial-like ones. Both immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy confirm this dual differentiation, with the presence of membrane-bound dense-core neural secretion, as well as melanosomes of neuroectodermal origin. Additionally, an in vitro cell line has been established. Cytogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of both malignant human melanoma patterns; non-random abnormalities in chromosomes 1 and 6, extra copies of chromosome 7. Duplication of the long arm of chromosome 14, as seen in olfactory neuroblastoma, is also seen.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Urinary bladder ; Carcinoma ; Hepatoid adenocarcinoma ; Alpha fetoprotein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  A new case of hepatoid adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in fragments obtained at transurethral resection (TUR) from a 71-year-old man who had complained of haematuria. The tumour was composed of trabeculae and small solid nests of polygonal atypical cells simulating hepatocarcinoma, together with glandular areas of an otherwise typical adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry showed cytoplasmic reactivity to AFP, AAT, albumin and CAM 5.2. Membrane reactivity was seen in EMA immunostaining, and there was also positivity to polyclonal CEA following a canalicular pattern. Immunoperoxidase studies of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, c-met, were positive. Their expression may be related to the aggressive behaviour of this tumour.
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