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  • 1
    Keywords: IN-SITU ; NEOPLASIA ; ASSAY ; SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA ; HEAD ; VACCINE ; PREVALENCE ; TRENDS ; NECK-CANCER
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) contribution in vulvar intraepithelial lesions (VIN) and invasive vulvar cancer (IVC) is not clearly established. This study provides novel data on HPV markers in a large series of VIN and IVC lesions. METHODS: Histologically confirmed VIN and IVC from 39 countries were assembled at the Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO). HPV-DNA detection was done by polymerase chain reaction using SPF-10 broad-spectrum primers and genotyping by reverse hybridisation line probe assay (LiPA25) (version 1). IVC cases were tested for p16(INK4a) by immunohistochemistry (CINtec histology kit, ROCHE). An IVC was considered HPV driven if both HPV-DNA and p16(INK4a) overexpression were observed simultaneously. Data analyses included algorithms allocating multiple infections to calculate type-specific contribution and logistic regression models to estimate adjusted prevalence (AP) and its 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Of 2296 cases, 587 were VIN and 1709 IVC. HPV-DNA was detected in 86.7% and 28.6% of the cases respectively. Amongst IVC cases, 25.1% were both HPV-DNA and p16(INK4a) positive. IVC cases were largely keratinising squamous cell carcinoma (KSCC) (N=1234). Overall prevalence of HPV related IVC cases was highest in younger women for any histological subtype. SCC with warty or basaloid features (SCC_WB) (N=326) were more likely to be HPV and p16(INK4a) positive (AP=69.5%, CI=63.6-74.8) versus KSCC (AP=11.5%, CI=9.7-13.5). HPV 16 was the commonest type (72.5%) followed by HPV 33 (6.5%) and HPV 18 (4.6%). Enrichment from VIN to IVC was significantly high for HPV 45 (8.5-fold). CONCLUSION: Combined data from HPV-DNA and p16(INK4a) testing are likely to represent a closer estimate of the real fraction of IVC induced by HPV. Our results indicate that HPV contribution in invasive vulvar cancer has probably been overestimated. HPV 16 remains the major player worldwide.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23886586
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  • 2
    Keywords: GENE-EXPRESSION ; HEAD ; POLYMERASE-CHAIN-REACTION ; CYCLE CONTROL ; NECK-CANCER ; oropharyngeal cancer ; RISK HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS ; ACTIVE HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS ; HIGH VIRAL LOAD ; TONSILLAR CANCER
    Abstract: Background:Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a causal factor in virtually all cervical and a subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OP-SCC), whereas its role in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (L-SCC) is unclear.Methods:Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (N=154) and deep-frozen tissues (N=55) of 102 L-SCC patients were analysed for the presence of 51 mucosal HPV types. HPV DNA-positive (HPV DNA+) cases were analysed for E6*I mRNA transcripts of all high risk (HR)/probably/possibly (p)HR-HPV identified, and for HPV type 16 (HPV16) viral load. Expression of p16(INK4a), pRb, cyclin D1 and p53 was analysed by immunohistochemistry.Results:Ninety-two patients were valid in DNA analysis, of which 32 (35%) had at least one HPV DNA+ sample. Among the 29 single infections, 22 (76%) were HPV16, 2 (7%) HPV56 and 1 each (4%) HPV45, HPV53, HPV70, HPV11 and HPV42. Three cases harboured HPV16 with HPV33 (twice) or HPV45. Only 32% of HPV DNA+ findings were reproducible. Among HPV16 DNA+ L-SCC, 2 out of 23 (9%) had high viral loads, 5 out of 25 (21%) expressed E6*I mRNA and 3 out of 21 (14%) showed high p16(INK4a) and low pRb expression (all three HPV16 RNA-positive), immunohistochemical marker combination not identified in any other HPV DNA+ or HPV DNA-negative (HPV DNA-) L-SCC, respectively.Conclusion:HPV type 16 has a causative role in a small subgroup of L-SCC (〈5% in this German hospital series).
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23778529
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  • 3
    Keywords: CELLS ; RISK ; INFECTION ; LESIONS ; CERVICAL-CANCER ; intraepithelial neoplasia ; METAANALYSIS ; HIV ; VULVA ; GENOTYPE ATTRIBUTION
    Abstract: Knowledge about human papillomaviruses (HPV) types involved in anal cancers in some world regions is scanty. Here, we describe the HPV DNA prevalence and type distribution in a series of invasive anal cancers and anal intraepithelial neoplasias (AIN) grades 2/3 from 24 countries. We analyzed 43 AIN 2/3 cases and 496 anal cancers diagnosed from 1986 to 2011. After histopathological evaluation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 system (version 1). A subset of 116 cancers was further tested for p16(INK4a) expression, a cellular surrogate marker for HPV-associated transformation. Prevalence ratios were estimated using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance in the anal cancer data set. HPV DNA was detected in 88.3% of anal cancers (95% confidence interval [CI]: 85.1-91.0%) and in 95.3% of AIN 2/3 (95% CI: 84.2-99.4%). Among cancers, the highest prevalence was observed in warty-basaloid subtype of squamous cell carcinomas, in younger patients and in North American geographical region. There were no statistically significant differences in prevalence by gender. HPV16 was the most frequent HPV type detected in both cancers (80.7%) and AIN 2/3 lesions (75.4%). HPV18 was the second most common type in invasive cancers (3.6%). p16(INK4a) overexpression was found in 95% of HPV DNA-positive anal cancers. In view of the results of HPV DNA and high proportion of p16(INK4a) overexpression, infection by HPV is most likely to be a necessary cause for anal cancers in both men and women. The large contribution of HPV16 reinforces the potential impact of HPV vaccines in the prevention of these lesions.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24817381
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  • 4
    Keywords: INFECTION ; MESSENGER-RNA ; LESIONS ; E6 ; SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA ; CYCLIN D1 ; aberrant expression ; P16 ; HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPES ; P53 DEGRADATION
    Abstract: Eight HPV types (HPV26, 53, 66, 67, 68, 70, 73 and 82) that are phylogenetically closely related to 12 WHO-defined high-risk (HR) HPV have been rarely but consistently identified as single HPV infections in about 3% of cervical cancer (CxCa) tissues. Due to lack of biological data, these types are referred to as probable/possible (p) HR-HPV. To analyse their biological activity in direct comparison to HR-HPV types, we selected 55 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) CxCa tissues harbouring single pHR-HPV infections (2-13 cases per type) and 266 tissues harbouring single HR-HPV (7-40 cases per type) from a worldwide, retrospective, cross-sectional study. Single HPV infection was verified by two genotyping methods. Presence of type-specific spliced E6*I mRNA transcripts and expression of cellular proteins indicative of HPV transformation were assessed in all cases. In 55 CxCa tissues with pHR-HPV, E6*I mRNA expression was 100%; high p16(INK4a) , 98%; low pRb, 96%; low CyD1, 93%; and low p53, 84%. Compared to HPV16 tissues as a reference, individual frequencies of these five markers did not differ significantly, either for any of the eight pHR-HPV and the 11 other HR types individually or for the groups of pHR and HR types without HPV16. We conclude that the eight pHR-HPV types, when present as a single infection in CxCa, are biologically active and affect the same cellular pathways as any of the fully recognized carcinogenic HR-HPV types. Therefore we have provided molecular evidence of carcinogenicity for types currently classified as probably/possibly carcinogenic. Although this evidence is crucial for HPV-type carcinogenicity classification, per se it is not sufficient for inclusion of these HPV types into population-wide primary and secondary prevention programmes. Such decisions have to include careful estimation of effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses. Copyright (c) 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25043390
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  • 5
  • 6
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: We conducted a large international study to estimate fractions of head and neck cancers (HNCs) attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV-AFs) using six HPV-related biomarkers of viral detection, transcription, and cellular transformation. METHODS: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cancer tissues of the oral cavity (OC), pharynx, and larynx were collected from pathology archives in 29 countries. All samples were subject to histopathological evaluation, DNA quality control, and HPV-DNA detection. Samples containing HPV-DNA were further subject to HPV E6*I mRNA detection and to p16(INK4a), pRb, p53, and Cyclin D1 immunohistochemistry. Final estimates of HPV-AFs were based on HPV-DNA, HPV E6*I mRNA, and/or p16(INK4a) results. RESULTS: A total of 3680 samples yielded valid results: 1374 pharyngeal, 1264 OC, and 1042 laryngeal cancers. HPV-AF estimates based on positivity for HPV-DNA, and for either HPV E6*I mRNA or p16(INK4a), were 22.4%, 4.4%, and 3.5% for cancers of the oropharynx, OC, and larynx, respectively, and 18.5%, 3.0%, and 1.5% when requiring simultaneous positivity for all three markers. HPV16 was largely the most common type. Estimates of HPV-AF in the oropharynx were highest in South America, Central and Eastern Europe, and Northern Europe, and lowest in Southern Europe. Women showed higher HPV-AFs than men for cancers of the oropharynx in Europe and for the larynx in Central-South America. CONCLUSIONS: HPV contribution to HNCs is substantial but highly heterogeneous by cancer site, region, and sex. This study, the largest exploring HPV attribution in HNCs, confirms the important role of HPVs in oropharyngeal cancer and drastically downplays the previously reported involvement of HPVs in the other HNCs.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26823521
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  • 7
    Abstract: Mucosal high-risk (HR) human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause a subset of head and neck cancers (HNC). The HPV-attributable fraction of HNC varies substantially between countries. Although HNC has a very high incidence in the Indian subcontinent, information on the contribution of HPV infection is limited. Here, we evaluated the HPV-attributable fraction in HNC (N = 364) collected in a central region of India. HNC from three different anatomical subsites were included, namely, oral cavity (n = 252), oropharynx (n = 53) and hypopharynx/larynx (n = 59). In this retrospective study, HPV-driven HNC were defined by presence of both viral DNA and RNA. Overexpression of p16INK4a was also evaluated. HR-HPV DNA was detected in 13.7% of the cases; however, only 2.7% were positive for both HPV DNA and RNA. The highest percentage of HPV DNA/RNA double positivity was found in oropharynx (9.4%), followed by larynx (1.7%) and oral cavity (1.6%) (p = 0.02). More than half of HPV DNA/RNA-positive cases were p16INK4a -negative, while a considerable number of HPV RNA-negative cases were p16INK4a -positive (17.9%). HPV16 was the major type associated with HNC (60.0%), although cases positive for HPV18, 35 and 56 were also detected. Our data indicate that the proportion and types of mucosal HR-HPV associated with HNC in this central Indian region differ from those in other (developed) parts of the world. This may be explained by differences in smoking and/or sexual behaviour compared with North America and northern Europe. Moreover, we show that p16INK4a staining appeared not to be a good surrogate marker of HPV transformation in the Indian HNC cases.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28369859
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  • 8
    Abstract: Worldwide use of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks (FFPE) is extensive in diagnosis and research. Yet, there is a lack of optimized/standardized protocols to process the blocks and verify the quality and presence of the targeted tissue. In the context of an international study on head and neck cancer (HNC)-HPV-AHEAD, a standardized protocol for optimizing the use of FFPEs in molecular epidemiology was developed and validated. First, a protocol for sectioning the FFPE was developed to prevent cross-contamination and distributed between participating centers. Before processing blocks, all sectioning centers underwent a quality control to guarantee a satisfactory training process. The first and last sections of the FFPEs were used for histopathological assessment. A consensus histopathology evaluation form was developed by an international panel of pathologists and evaluated for four indicators in a pilot analysis in order to validate it: 1) presence/type of tumor tissue, 2) identification of other tissue components that could affect the molecular diagnosis and 3) quality of the tissue. No HPV DNA was found in sections from empty FFPE generated in any histology laboratories of HPV-AHEAD consortium and all centers passed quality assurance for processing after quality control. The pilot analysis to validate the histopathology form included 355 HNC cases. The form was filled by six pathologists and each case was randomly assigned to two of them. Most samples (86%) were considered satisfactory. Presence of 〉50% of invasive carcinoma was observed in all sections of 66% of cases. Substantial necrosis (〉50%) was present in 〈2% of samples. The concordance for the indicators targeted to validate the histopathology form was very high (kappa 〉 0.85) between first and last sections and fair to high between pathologists (kappa/pabak 0.21-0.72). The protocol allowed to correctly process without signs of contamination all FFPE of the study. The histopathology evaluation of the cases assured the presence of the targeted tissue, identified the presence of other tissues that could disturb the molecular diagnosis and allowed the assessment of tissue quality.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29036167
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  • 9
    Abstract: There are at least two different etio-pathogenic pathways for the development of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC): one associated with infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) and another independent of HPV. We aimed to describe the histological characteristics of HPV-associated and -independent tumors and to determine the best strategy to identify HPV in VSCC. A single paraffin block was available for review from a series of 1,594 VSCCs. In all cases HPV DNA detection was analyzed using the SPF10PCR/DEIA/LiPA25 system and p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC). A tumor was considered as unquestionably HPV-associated if both HPV DNA and p16 IHC were positive. A tumor was considered indisputably HPV-independent if both HPV DNA and p16 IHC were negative. Two groups of tumors were classified as non-conclusive: (1) HPV DNA+/p16- and (2) HPV DNA-/p16+. WHO typing and a thorough histological evaluation were conducted in all cases. Four hundred and forty-one tumors were HPV DNA+ with 367 cases (23.0%) being HPV DNA+/p16+. The latter tumors were more frequently basaloid or warty (49.8%), but 36.5% were of the keratinizing type; 1,153 tumors were HPV DNA-, with 1,060 cases (66.5%) being HPV DNA-/p16-. These HPV DNA-/p16- tumors were mostly keratinizing (81.2%) but were occasionally basaloid or warty (5.2%). The features of HPV DNA-/p16+ cases (n = 93) were similar to those of the HPV-associated VSCC, and HPV DNA+/p16- (n = 74) cases had a more diverse profile, although they were more similar to HPV-independent tumors. Several histological characteristics were more frequently associated with HPV-related VSCC (koilocytotic-like change, necrosis, moderate to marked pleomorphism, invasive front in nests; p 〈 0.001), however, none of these characteristics allowed differentiation between HPV-associated and -independent VSCC. In conclusion, histological criteria do not allow differentiation between HPV-associated and -independent VSCC. p16 Alone is a clinically easy strategy to determine HPV status in VSCC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28815579
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  • 10
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: The etiologic role of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is well established. Nevertheless, information on survival differences by anatomic sub-site or treatment remains scarce, and it is still unclear the HPV-relatedness definition with best diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients diagnosed with a primary OPC in four Catalonian hospitals from 1990 to 2013. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cancer tissues were subjected to histopathological evaluation, DNA quality control, HPV-DNA detection, and p16(INK4a)/pRb/p53/Cyclin-D1 immunohistochemistry. HPV-DNA positive and a random sample of HPV-DNA negative cases were subjected to HPV-E6*I mRNA detection. Demographic, tobacco/alcohol use, clinical and follow-up data were collected. Multivariate models were used to evaluate factors associated with HPV positivity as defined by four different HPV-relatedness definitions. Proportional-hazards models were used to compare the risk of death and recurrence among HPV-related and non-related OPC. RESULTS: 788 patients yielded a valid HPV-DNA result. The percentage of positive cases was 10.9%, 10.2%, 8.5% and 7.4% for p16(INK4a), HPV-DNA, HPV-DNA/HPV-E6*I mRNA, and HPV-DNA/p16(INK4a), respectively. Being non-smoker or non-drinker was consistently associated across HPV-relatedness definitions with HPV positivity. A suggestion of survival differences between anatomic sub-sites and treatments was observed. Double positivity for HPV-DNA/p16(INK4a) showed strongest diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value. CONCLUSIONS: Double positivity for HPV-DNA/p16(INK4a), a test that can be easily implemented in the clinical practice, has optimal diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value. Our results have strong clinical implications for patients' classification and handling and also suggest that not all the HPV-related OPC behave similarly.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29496041
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