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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The absence of adenosine A2A receptors, or its pharmacological inhibition, has neuroprotective effects. Experimental data suggest that glial A2A receptors participate in neurodegeneration induced by A2A receptor stimulation. In this study we have investigated the effects of A2A receptor stimulation on control and activated glial cells. Mouse cortical mixed glial cultures (75% astrocytes, 25% microglia) were treated with the A2A receptor agonist CGS21680 alone or in combination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). CGS21680 potentiated lipopolysaccharide-induced NO release and NO synthase-II expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. CGS21680 potentiation of lipopolysaccharide-induced NO release was suppressed by the A2A receptor antagonist ZM-241385 and did not occur on mixed glial cultures from A2A receptor-deficient mice. In mixed glial cultures treated with LPS + CGS21680, the NO synthase-II inhibitor 1400W abolished NO production, and NO synthase-II immunoreactivity was observed only in microglia. Binding experiments demonstrated the presence of A2A receptors on microglial but not on astroglial cultures. However, the presence of astrocytes was necessary for CGS21680 potentiating effect. In light of the reported neurotoxicity of microglial NO synthase-II and the neuroprotection of A2A receptor inhibition, these data suggest that attenuation of microglial NO production could contribute to the neuroprotection afforded by A2A receptor antagonists.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Adenosine, by acting on adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, exerts opposite modulatory roles on striatal extracellular levels of glutamate and dopamine, with activation of A1 inhibiting and activation of A2A receptors stimulating glutamate and dopamine release. Adenosine-mediated modulation of striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission could be secondary to changes in glutamate neurotransmission, in view of evidence for a preferential colocalization of A1 and A2A receptors in glutamatergic nerve terminals. By using in vivo microdialysis techniques, local perfusion of NMDA (3, 10 µm), the selective A2A receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680; 3, 10 µm), the selective A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (CPT; 300, 1000 µm), or the non-selective A1-A2A receptor antagonist in vitro caffeine (300, 1000 µm) elicited significant increases in extracellular levels of dopamine in the shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Significant glutamate release was also observed with local perfusion of CGS 21680, CPT and caffeine, but not NMDA. Co-perfusion with the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist dl-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV; 100 µm) counteracted dopamine release induced by NMDA, CGS 21680, CPT and caffeine. Co-perfusion with the selective A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 (1 µm) counteracted dopamine and glutamate release induced by CGS 21680, CPT and caffeine and did not modify dopamine release induced by NMDA. These results indicate that modulation of dopamine release in the shell of the NAc by A1 and A2A receptors is mostly secondary to their opposite modulatory role on glutamatergic neurotransmission and depends on stimulation of NMDA receptors. Furthermore, these results underscore the role of A1 vs. A2A receptor antagonism in the central effects of caffeine.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1520-6904
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The influence of pH on the equilibrium dissociation constant and on kinetic association and dissociation constants was studied for adenosine receptor agonist L-N6-[adenine-2,8-3H, ethyl-2-3H]phenylisopropyladenosine ([3H]R-PIA) and antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-[3H]-dipropylxanthine ([3H]DPCPX). Two ionizable groups, of pK 7.0 and pK 7.4, are involved in the [3H]R-PIA associations with high- and low-affinity states of the receptor, and another group, of pK 6.0, is involved in the association with the low-affinity state. No ionizable group is involved in the dissociation process for the high-affinity state, whereas two ionizable groups, of pK 6.0 and 6.5, are involved in the low-affinity state. For [3H]DPCPX, three ionizable groups (pK 6.0, 7.4, and 8.0) are involved in the association process and only one group, (pK 6.0), is involved in the dissociation step. The apparent pK values obtained agree with histidine residues. We thus studied the effect of diethylpyrocarbonate (DEP), which reacts irreversibly with histidine residues, on agonist and antagonist binding to A1 adenosine receptors from pig brain cortical membranes. DEP treatment of membrane reduced the affinity (KD) and the total binding (R) of the agonist and the antagonist. Membrane preincubation with unlabeled ligand (R-PIA or DPCPX) prevented the effect of DEP modification observed when the same ligand, but with label, is added to the same membranes, but did not prevent the DEP modification on different, labeled ligand. The pattern of protective action of R-PIA, DPCPX, adenosine, and guanylylimidodiphosphate in DEP treatment and the displacement curves of radiolabeled agonist and antagonist by both unlabeled ligands indicated that the interaction site for agonist and antagonist binding is the same, although the complete mechanisms for recognition and binding differ.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Exogenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP) added to brush-border membrane vesicles was rapidly degraded mainly to inosine according to the high ecto-nucleotidase activities in these vesicles. In the absence of phosphate, inosine was slowly transformed into hypoxanthine, and xanthine oxidase and dehydrogenase activities were not detected. The presence of ecto-adenosine deaminase and ecto-adenosine monophosphate (AMP) nucleotidase was shown. The ecto-adenosine deaminase was inhibited by deoxycoformycin and was also detected in rat renal brush-border membrane vesicles. Using orthovanadate, levamisole, and α, β-methylene adenosine diphosphate as possible inhibitors, alkaline phosphatase was shown to be the main agent responsible for ecto-AMP nucleotidase activity. In pig renal basolateral membrane vesicles and in whole cell extracts from pig renal cortex, ecto-AMP nucleotidase was the limiting factor in ATP degradation. Comparing the ATP catabolism in the whole cell cortical extract with the catabolism in the same sample precleared of membranes, it was shown that ectonucleotidase activity is mainly bound to the membranous components. It is also shown that the whole cell extract of pig renal cortex has hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase activity, and it seems probable that the rapid and specific formation of luminal inosine and its transport into the cell in competition with adenosine may start the purine salvage pathway through the synthesis of IMP from hypoxanthine. © Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Key words: Adenosine recetpor – Antagonist kinetic components – Pig brain – DPCPX
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The results described in this paper show, for the first time, that A1 adenosine receptors can have two kinetic components for the binding of the antagonist [3H]DPCPX. At low ionic strength (≤42 mmol/l), dissociation of [3H]DPCPX bound to A1 receptors fitted better to a two kinetic components model than to a one kinetic component model. The kinetic constants were consistent with comparable K d values for the two components of the antagonist binding, and therefore these two components cannot be distinguished by saturation isotherm analysis.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Adenosine recetpor ; Antagonist kinetic components ; Pig brain ; DPCPX
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The results described in this paper show, for the first time, that At adenosine receptors can have two kinetic components for the binding of the antagonist [3H]DPCPX. At low ionic strength (≤ 42mmo1/l), dissociation of [3H]DPCPX bound to A1 receptors fitted better to a two kinetic components model than to a one kinetic component model. The kinetic constants were consistent with comparable Kd values for the two components of the antagonist binding, and therefore these two components cannot be distinguished by saturation isotherm analysis.
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