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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In this study, we investigate the prevalence of selected periodontal pathogens on the oral mucous membranes before and after full-mouth tooth extractions in patients with severe periodontitis. 8 patients were microbiologically examined 2 × before and 2 × after extraction; several locations on the oral mucous membranes, saliva, supra- and subgingival plaque, were sampled. Besides their presence in subgingival plaque, we detected before extraction on the mucous membranes Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in 2 patients (mean 0.03%), Porphyromonas gingivalis in 6 patients (mean 9%), and Prevotella intermedia (mean 2%) and other Prevotella species (mean 7%) in all patients. At 1 and 3 months after extraction, A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis could not be detected in any of these patients on the oral mucous membranes and in saliva, while from all patients still P. intermedia (mean 3%) and the other blackpigmented Prevotella species (mean 4%) could be isolated. These results indicate that the preferable habitat for A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis is dental plaque in subgingival lesions. P. intermedia and the other blackpigmented Prevotella species can colonize the oral mucous membranes of edentulous patients irrespective of the presence of a subgingival microflora. We speculate that in periodontal patients the colonization of mucous membranes with P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans is transient in nature and most likely the result of dissemination from the subgingival microflora. Thus it seems unlikely that edentulous patients constitute a reservoir of infection of P. gingivalis A. actinomycetemcomitans.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objectives: Evidence suggests functional relevance for polymorphisms in FcγR in relation to inflammatory and infectious diseases. The present aim was to investigate genetic polymorphisms in three FcγR in relation to susceptibility and severity of periodontitis.Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 68 periodontitis patients and 61 controls (Northern European Caucasian background, mean ages 44 and 42 years, respectively). Among the patients, 12 subjects were diagnosed with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and 56 individuals were diagnosed with chronic periodontitis (CP). Radiographic bone levels were scored for all teeth in the patients. Subjects were typed for the following genes (alleles): FcγRIIa (R131 or H131), FcγRIIIa (V158 or F158) and FcγRIIIb (NA1 or NA2).Results: Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium criteria were fulfilled for the different genotypes at the three genes investigated. The frequency of the FcγRIIIa-V158 allele in the patient population (53%) was higher than in the control group (39%) (OR 1.73 [1.06–2.85], p=0.034). The V158 carriage rate in AgP was even higher (63%). The frequency of the FcγRIIa-H131 allele in the total periodontitis population was 58%; for AgP this was 79%, compared with 51% in the control population (OR 3.68 [1.29–10.5], p=0.013). Also, the frequency of the FcγRIIa-H/H131 genotype was significantly higher in AgP patients than in controls (OR 9.07 [1.29–63.56], p=0.026, adjusted for smoking status and other potential confounders). Moreover, patients with the FcγRIIa-H/H131 genotype had more severe radiographic bone loss than patients with the other FcγRIIa genotypes.Conclusion: The current study of relative small sample size suggests that the FcγRIIa-H/H131 genotype may be a putative susceptibility and severity factor, and the FcγRIIIa-V158 allele a putative susceptibility factor for periodontitis in Northern European Caucasians. These results need further verification and the biological importance of these findings needs further investigation.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objectives: It has been suggested that periodontal inflammation may result in an altered immune response. The peripheral immune capacity in periodontitis patients can be investigated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated whole blood cell cultures (WBCC), known to reflect the behavior of monocytes in particular. A previous study in our laboratory revealed that monocytes in the stimulated cultures from periodontitis patients behaved functionally different compared with controls. The present study investigated whether this different response of periodontitis patients' monocytes is intrinsic or acquired.Material and Methods: The release of inflammatory mediators was measured in Escherichia coli LPS-stimulated WBCC from 12 periodontitis patients before and after periodontal therapy. In addition, the total leukocyte and leukocyte differentiation counts were also determined in the patients before and after therapy.Results: The levels of interleukin (IL)-12p70 in cell culture supernatants increased two times and those of prostaglandin E2 showed a trend towards reduction after therapy, whereas the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40 and tumor necrosis factor-α did not change. The total number of white blood cells was decreased after periodontal therapy.Conclusions: After periodontal therapy, the functional phenotype of the peripheral blood monocytes from patients was reconstituted, resembling that of subjects without periodontitis.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background and aims: Bacteria play an essential role in the pathogenesis of destructive periodontal disease. It has been suggested that not all bacteria associated with periodontitis may be normal inhabitants of a periodontally healthy dentition. In particular, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans have been isolated infrequently from subjects without periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to compare prevalence and proportions of a number of periodontal bacteria in periodontitis patients and control subjects.Material and methods: In all, 116 consecutive subjects diagnosed with moderate to severe periodontitis (mean age 42.4) and 94 subjects without radiographic evidence of alveolar bone loss (mean age 40.4) were recruited for the study. The gingival condition in the control group varied between gingival health and various degrees of gingivitis. In patients, the deepest pocket in each quadrant was selected for microbiological sampling. In control subjects all mesial and distal sites of all first molars were selected for sampling. All paper points from a patient were pooled and processed for anaerobic cultivation within 6 h after sampling. Clinical variables of sampled sites included bleeding index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level.Results: A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Bacteroides forsythus, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Peptostreptococcus micros were significantly more often prevalent in patients than in controls. The highest odds ratios were found for P. gingivalis and B. forsythus (12.3 and 10.4 resp.). Other odds ratios varied from 3.1 to 7.7 for A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. micros, respectively. Absolute numbers of target bacteria were all higher in patients, but only the mean percentage of B. forsythus was significantly higher in patients in comparison to controls (P 〈 0.001). Conclusions: A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, B. forsythus, F. nucleatum and P. micros are all significant markers for destructive periodontal disease in adult subjects. Based on calculated odds ratios, B. forsythus and P. gingivalis are the strongest bacterial markers for this disease and are infrequently cultured from subjects without periodontal bone loss.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objectives: Current literature is ambivalent on the use of barrier membranes for regeneration of intraosseous defects. One of the reasons for unpredictable results may be related to infection before, during and after the surgical procedure. Therefore, the purpose of the present controlled study was to evaluate both the use of membranes (MEM) and antibiotics (AB), separately and in combination.Methods: In all, 25 patients with two intraosseous periodontal defects each were randomized in two groups: AB+ group receiving systemic antibiotics (n = 13) and AB– group without antibiotics (n = 12). After raising flaps and after debridement, both defects in each patient were covered by a bioresorbable membrane (MEM+). However, just before suturing the flaps in a coronal position, the membrane over one of the two defects was removed at random (MEM–). This protocol resulted in four groups of defects: (i) MEM– AB–; (ii) MEM+ AB–; (iii) MEM– AB+ ; (iv) MEM+ AB+. Patients were monitored clinically and microbiologically for 1 year. Data were analyzed in repeated measures ancova's and adjusted means for clinical variables were obtained from the final statistical model.Results:  Reduction in probing pocket depth (PPD) at 12 months postoperatively varied between 2.54 and 3.06 mm between the four treatment modalities, but overall no main effect of MEM or AB was found. Gains in probing attachment level (PAL) at 12 months postoperatively varied between 0.56 and 1.96 mm for the 4 treatments. In the overall analysis for PAL, no main effect of MEM or AB was found. Gains in probing bone level (PBL) 12 months postoperatively ranged from 1.39 to 2.09 mm between the treatment groups. Again, overall, no main effects of MEM or AB were found for PBL. Explorative statistical analyses indicated that smoking and not MEM or AB is a determining factor for gain in PBL (P = 0.0009). Nonsmokers were estimated to gain 2.04 mm PBL compared to 0.52 mm in smokers. The prevalence of several periodontal pathogens, at the day of surgery or postoperatively, and specific defect characteristics, were not determining factors for gain in PAL and PBL.Conclusions:  Neither the application of barrier membranes nor the use of systemic antibiotics showed an additional effect over control on both soft and hard tissue measurements in the treatment of intraosseous defects. In contrast, smoking was a determining factor severely limiting gain in PBL in surgical procedures aimed at regeneration of intraosseous defects.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The present study primarily aimed at investigating the oral microbiota in smokers and non-smokers with established gingivitis and monitoring its composition during experimental gingivitis. Secondly, it aimed at examining whether the composition of the microbiota is associated with different levels of gingival inflammation during this experimental gingivitis trial. For this purpose, 25 non-dental university students with gingivitis were recruited. 11 subjects were smokers and 14 were non-smokers. After achieving gingival health, they entered a 14-day experimental gingivitis trial. Plaque and bleeding were assessed before entering into the study (intake), at day 0. day 5 and at day 14 of the experiment. Microbiological samples from mucosal sites and dental plaque (taken at intake, day 0, and day 14) were analysed for the presence of Actinomyces species. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides forsythus, Campylobacter rectus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Peptostreptococcus micros. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Streptococcus species. At day 14 of the experimental period, the level of plaque formation was not different between smokers and nonsmokers, but bleeding scores were lower in smokers than in non-smokers (15% and 30%) respectively, p= 0.01). The change from natural gingivitis to a state of gingival health and a subsequent change from gingival health to experimentally induced gingivitis was accompanied by quantitative alterations in the cultivable microbiota in both groups. Changes were most prominent in the transition from gingival health to experimental gingivitis and were found in dental plaque for Actinomyces species, C. rectus, F. nucleatum, and P. intermedia. Within the group of non-smokers, a distinction was made between subjects with a‘weak’or 'strong’inflammatory response. No relationship with a single bacterial species could be established which would likely explain the differences in levels of inflammation. It is concluded that differences in response to experimental gingivitis are not caused by major differences in the composition of the oral microbiota.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Jresons who smoke display a less pronounced increase of gingival bleeding in the exjreimental gingivitis model as compared with non-smokers. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this could partly be explained by differences in levels of parotid total secretory IgA (S-IgA) or parotid S-IgA reactive with selected oral microorganisms. Parotid saliva samples were obtained from 11 smoking and 14 non-smoking volunteers, at baseline, after 5 and 14 days of full mouth exjreimental gingivitis. Output levels of total S-IgA and of specific S-IgA reactive with cell extracts from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Actinomyces naeslundii, Campylobacter rectus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, Peptostreptococcus micros, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans were determined in the samples by means of ELISA. Smokers and non-smokers were found to have similar output levels (μg/min) of total S-IgA, and the values did not significantly change during the exjreimental gingivitis trial. Parotid salivary outputs (units/min) of the bacteria-specific S-IgA at baseline and at days 5 and 14, were not different between smokers and non-smokers; no changes were observed during the exjreimental gingivitis trial. The present observations indicate that total S-IgA and bacteria-specific S-IgA in saliva are not main factors that can explain the less pronounced increase of gingival bleeding in the exjreimental gingivitis model in smokers as compared with non-smokers.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To explore aspects of cellular immune responses in the pathogenesis of periodontitis we analyzed phenotype and function of peripheral T cells. Two groups of subjects participated: one group consisted of 10 highly susceptible patients with severe periodontitis (mean age 29 years) and a control group consisted of 10 age, gender and race matched subjects with gingivitis. From all subjects peripheral blood was collected. The results showed that the numbers of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as the CD4/CD8 ratio, and the proliferative capacity of T cells, were not different between the two groups of subjects. Also, proportions of naive and memory T cells for both the CD4+ and CD8+ subpopulations were not different. Functional heterogeneity within the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments was determined by intracellular analysis of interferon-γ(IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production. On the basis of these latter analyses among CD4+ and CD8+ cells, T helper (Th) 1 or Th2 function and T cytotoxic (Tc) 1 or Tc2 function, respectively, could be deduced. No significant differences in proportions of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells positive for intracellular IFN-γ or IL-4 were observed between periodontitis patients and gingivitis controls; however a higher level of intracellular IL-4 in CD8+ T cells was seen in periodontitis patients. This might indicate that there is a shift towards a Tc2 function within the CD8+ T cell subpopulation. The current explorative study suggests that further research into the role of CD8+T cells in the pathogenesis of periodontitis is warranted.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Anemia of chronic disease (ACD) is defined as the anemia occurring in chronic infections and inflammatory conditions, that is not due to marrow deficiencies or other diseases and in the presence of adequate iron stores and vitamins. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether periodontitis patients show signs of anemia.Method: 39 patients with severe periodontitis, 71 patients with moderate periodontitis and 42 controls, all with good general health, participated in this study. The mean age of all groups was 42 years. Several red blood cell parameters were determined from peripheral blood samples.Results: Overall data analysis indicated that periodontitis patients have a lower hematocrit, lower numbers of erythrocytes, lower hemoglobin levels and higher erythrocyte sedimentation rates. These results were adjusted for the following possible confounders: gender, age, smoking, ethnicity and level of education. Further, more periodontitis patients (23%) than controls (7%), had hemoglobin levels below the normal reference range.Conclusions: The present study provides further evidence that periodontitis has systemic effects and that periodontitis may tend towards anemia. This phenomenon may be explained by a depressed erythropoiesis.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: A major aspect of the adaptive host response in periodontitis is the production of antibodies. Several risk and susceptibility factors for periodontitis, including smoking, age and composition of the subgingival microflora, have also been suggested to influence antibody production.Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate plasma levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, A and M antibodies in periodontitis patients of Caucasian European heritage in relation to disease severity, smoking, diagnosis and prevalence of periodontopathogens.Methods: In this study, 29 patients with severe periodontitis, 51 with moderate periodontitis and 55 controls without periodontal destruction were enrolled. From the total of 80 patients, 18 were diagnosed with aggressive periodontitis and 62 with chronic periodontitis. Total IgG, IgA and IgM as well as IgG isotypes were analyzed in plasma samples.Results: Levels of total IgG, IgA and IgM were not different between patients and controls; however, in periodontitis, higher levels of IgG1 and IgG2 were observed. Smoking appeared to be significantly and inversely related to antibody levels in periodontitis, in particular for total IgG and IgG2. The absence of an elevated total IgG and IgG2 in smoking patients was irrespective of severity, prevalence of periodontal pathogens and diagnosis. The elevation of total IgG and IgG1 and IgG2 in non-smoker periodontitis patients was observed in patients with moderate periodontitis and even greater in patients with severe periodontitis, but was independent whether patients were infected with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans or Porphyromonas gingivalis and independent of diagnosis. Clinically, it was observed that patients who smoked had more periodontal bone loss; the current findings on antibody levels may be one of several mechanisms related to more extensive periodontal breakdown in smoker patients.Conclusion: The current study shows that non-smoker periodontitis patients have higher levels of total IgG and IgG2 than smoker periodontitis patients.
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