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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Radiology, Medical ; Radiotherapy ; Oncology ; Otorhinolaryngology ; Medicine & Public Health ; Imaging / Radiology ; Radiotherapy ; Otorhinolaryngology ; Oncology ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9783540928102
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-20
    Description: Introduction Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is defined as the clinical diagnosis of heart failure (HF) and ejection fraction (EF) ≤40%, which is a severe public healthcare issue and brings a heavy social and economic burden for patients with HFrEF. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has a long history in treating HF. Questions concerning the efficacy and acceptability of CHM-related interventions in adult patients with HFrEF led us to use the method of systematic review and network meta-analysis to integrate direct and indirect evidence to create hierarchies for all CHM. Methods and analysis Nine medical databases, including PubMed, EMBASE (OVID), the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Web of Science, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang Database and CBM will be searched from the date of database inception to June 2015 (updated to March 2017) without language and publication status restriction. Completely randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing CHM or CHM plus routine treatment with CHM, CHM plus routine treatment, routine treatment, no treatment or placebo for adults with HFrEF will be examined. Our primary outcomes will include all-cause mortality, HF-related death, all-cause rehospitalisation, HF-related rehospitalisation and acceptability (discontinuation due to any adverse events during treatment). Secondary outcomes will include response rate, mean value or mean difference from baseline of surrogate indexes. We will perform the Bayesian network meta-analyses (NMA) for the most frequently reported primary or secondary outcome and the acceptability outcome, if available. Meta-regression, subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses will be conducted based on prespecified effect modifiers to assess the robustness of the findings. Dissemination The results of this NMA will provide useful information about the effectiveness and acceptability of CHM in adults with HFrEF, which will also have implications for clinical practice and further research. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journal publication and conference presentations. PROSPERO registration number CRD42016053854.
    Keywords: Open access, Complementary medicine
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 3
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  83. Jahresversammlung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie; 20120516-20120520; Mainz; DOC12hnod310 /20120404/
    Publication Date: 2012-04-05
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Keywords: Circadian ; Electroretinogram ; Melatonin ; Pineal gland ; Retina
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Visual and circadian function are integrally related in birds, but the precise nature of their interaction is unknown. The present study determined whether visual sensitivity measured electroretinographically (ERG) in 7-week-old cockerels varies over the time of day, whether this rhythm persists in constant darkness (DD) and whether exogenous melatonin affects this ERG rhythmicity. ERG b-wave amplitude was rhythmic in LD and persisted in DD with peak amplitude during mid- to late afternoon in LD and mid-subjective day in DD, indicating that the ERG rhythm is endogenously generated. No daily or circadian variation in a-wave amplitude was observed, and ERG component latency and durations were not rhythmic. Intramuscular injection of 10 μg/kg melatonin at ZT10 in LD significantly decreased b-wave amplitude but had no effect on a-wave. Intraocular injection of 600 pg melatonin, however, had no effect on any aspect of the ERG. These data indicate that a circadian clock regulates ocular sensitivity to light and that melatonin may mediate some or all of this effect. The level at which melatonin modulates retinal sensitivity is not known, but the present data suggest a central site rather than a direct effect of the hormone in the eye.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Keywords: Key words Motor pattern switching ; Dynamic clamp ; Single-electrode voltage clamp ; Leech
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The motor program for heartbeat in the medicinal leech is produced by a central pattern generator that regularly switches between two alternative coordination states. A pair of switch heart interneurons reciprocally alternate between rhythmically active and inactive states to effect these switches. During spontaneous switches in the activity state of switch interneurons, there was no correlation between the duration of a particular activity state and beat period, indicating that the timing networks for the switch cycle and the beat cycle are relatively independent. Simultaneous recordings from two switch heart interneurons showed that a perturbation in the electrical activity of one does not influence switching of the other and that there is no synaptic interaction between them. Using voltage clamp, we characterized an L-like Ca2+ current (measured as Ba2+ currents), inactivating and non-inactivating K+ currents, a persistent Na+ current, and a hyperpolarization-activated inward current in switch interneurons. Dynamic clamp experiments show that “subtraction” of an artificial switch leak conductance (described previously by Gramoll et al. 1994) from a switch interneuron when it is in the inactive state causes it to display activity associated with the active state. We discuss how the switch leak conductance may interact with the intrinsic currents of switch interneurons to control their activity state.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1254
    Keywords: Temperature ; Cold ; Hot ; Number of deaths from different diseases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The study is focused on patterns of daily deaths in Shanghai for the period from 1 May 1979 to 30 April 1980. From May to September the deaths in all age groups are lower, but increase gradually from October and reach to a peak in February. This confirms results found in other countries, namely the death rate is increased in winter. The peak for the population aged over 70 is the highest of the three different age groups. Correlation analyses were carried out on three temperature parameters (daily minimum, maximum and mean temperatures) and six categories of death (heart disease, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, cancer, respiratory disease and total deaths). The results reveal that the average daily temperature is very significant for the six categories of death. There are three correlations: straight line relationship, parabolic relationship and exponential relationship. These different types arise from the different morbidity rates. Death from the different disease is also increased during days when the daily maximum temperature is over 35° C or the daily minimum temperature is below 0°C. This shows, in general, that days of extreme temperature lead to an increase in the death rate.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Keywords: Avian ; Circadian ; Melatonin ; Pineal ; Suprachiasmatic
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The pineal gland and its hormone melatonin are crucial for the generation of circadian rhythms in several species of passerine birds. The sites and mechanisms by which they influence avian behavior are therefore of particular interest. Recent research employing several brain imaging techniques has indicated that the sites of melatonin action within the avian brain are wide-spread within the 4 major visual pathways. In this study, we have investigated whether the avian homologue of the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus, the visual suprachiasmatic nucleus (vSCN), and other visually sensitive structures express circadian rhythms of 2-deoxy[14C]glucose (2DG) uptake and 2[125I]iodomelatonin (IMEL) binding in house sparrows,Passer domesticus, under constant environmental conditions in the presence or absence of the pineal gland. The results indicate that 2DG uptake in the vSCN is oscillatory in sham-operated sparrows but damps to arrhythmicity in pinealectomized birds, suggesting this structure contains a damped circadian oscillator independent of pineal input. We have also asked whether IMEL binding is rhythmic under these conditions in the same brains. These results indicate IMEL binding is rhythmic in several structures in the circadian, tectofugal, thalamofugal visual pathways and that pinealectomy increases the level of IMEL binding 2–4 fold suggesting that IMEL binding is down regulated by endogenous melatonin. However, the circadian rhythm of this binding is only gradually abolished, suggesting it too is regulated by a non-pineal circadian clock. These data are discussed in the context of the behavioral neurobiology of avian circadian systems and the neuroendocrine loop model.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Recent research in our laboratory has indicated that in sparrows the visual suprachiasmatic nucleus (vSCN) is metabolically rhythmic such that 2-deoxy[14C]glucose (2DG) uptake and specific binding of 2[125I]iodomelatonin (IMEL) are high during subjective day for up to 10 circadian cycles in constant darkness (DD). These rhythms damp to arrhythmicity in pinealectomized birds (PINX). The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that exogenous melatonin rhythmically applied can restore disrupted behavioral and cerebral rhythmicity. Pinealectomized house sparrows were placed in constant dim light and allowed to become arrhythmic. Experimental birds received 0.86 mM melatonin in 0.01% ethanol (ETOH) to drink for 12 of every 24 h for 14 days. Control birds received 0.01% ETOH only. Behavioral rhythmicity was restored by melatonin but not by ETOH. Birds were injected with 2DG 6 or 18 h following the beginning of melatonin (for experimental birds: MT06 and MT18 respectively) or ETOH (for control birds: ET06 and ET18 respectively) administration, allowed to survive 1 h and killed for 2DG and IMEL autoradiography. The data indicated 2DG rhythmicity such that uptake was high at MT18 in vSCN and several visual, auditory and limbic system structures in birds receiving melatonin but not in birds receiving ETOH. Similarly, IMEL binding rhythms were restored in vSCN and other visual, auditory and limbic system structures in birds receiving melatonin but not in those receiving ETOH. These data indicate that melatonin cycles are responsible for generating and/or driving a wide array of cerebral metabolic rhythms and that this influence is inhibitory.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Interosseous membrane ; Radioulnar synostosis ; Posterior interosseous nerve ; Surgical approach ; Anatomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The object of this study was to identify the best approach for exposing the radioulnar interosseous membrane while protecting the posterior interosseous n. (PIN). Twenty paired upper limbs were used to obtain measurements of the PIN and expose the distal two-thirds of the interosseous membrane in the forearm through a dorsoradial approach. The length of the PIN from the radial head to the arcade of Frohse (AF) was 26.5 ± 1.6 mm in males and 25.3 ± 1.1 mm in females. The length of the PIN between the radial head and the point where the PIN exits from the supinator was 66.7 ± 4.7 mm in males and 64.0 ± 2.5 mm in females. The length of the PIN covered by the supinator was 44.0 ± 0.5 mm in males and 37.0 ± 0.5 mm in females. The distance between the point where the PIN exits from the supinator and the lateral margin of the radius was 15.0 ± 0.9 mm in males and 14.5 ± 0.9 mm in females. The distance between the exit point of the PIN from the supinator and the lateral margin of the ulna was 18.2 ± 0.6 mm in males and 17.9 ± 0.7 mm in females. The distance from the point where the most lateral branch of the PIN entered the abductor pollicis longus (APL) to the lateral margin of the radius was 3.5 ± 0.5 mm. In 20 cadaveric upper limbe, the middle and distal portions of the interosseous membrane were exposed through the interval between the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC) m., after the origine of the extensor pollicis brevis (EPB), and extensor pollicis longus (EPL) mm. had been elevated from the lateral margin of the radius. The present study suggests that usina dorsoradial approach facilitates exposure of the middle and distal portions of the interosseous membrane.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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