Comprehensive diagnosis of polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions was systematically conducted on three hazardous waste incinerators (HWIs). Results indicated that PCDD/F mainly existed in the solid phase before the bag filter. This was especially true for higher chlorinated dioxin and furan congeners (hexa-, hepta- and octa-). The aged bag filters tended to increase the gas-phase PCDD/F. Emissions also increased due to PCDD/F desorption from circulated scrubbing solution and plastic packing media used in the wet scrubber. The PCDD/F concentrations were elevated during the start-up process, reaching up to 5.4 times higher than those measured during the normal operating period. The ratios of PCDFs/PCDDs revealed that the surface-catalysed de novo synthesis was the dominant pathway of PCDD/F formation. Installation of more efficient fabric filters, intermittent replacement of circulated scrubbing solution will result in reduced PCDD/F emission. Additionally, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF correlated well with the international toxic equivalent quantity (I-TEQ) value, which suggests that 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF could act as an I-TEQ indicator.
energy, environmental chemistry, environmental engineering
Natural Sciences in General