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  • 1
    Keywords: THERAPY ; DENSITY ; chemotherapy ; MUTATIONS ; REVEALS ; CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC-LEUKEMIA ; ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ; GLIOBLASTOMA ; TUMOR EVOLUTION
    Abstract: Despite much evidence on epigenetic abnormalities in cancer, it is currently unclear to what extent epigenetic alterations can be associated with tumors' clonal genetic origins. Here, we show that the prostate intratumor heterogeneity in DNA methylation and copy-number patterns can be explained by a unified evolutionary process. By assaying multiple topographically distinct tumor sites, premalignant lesions, and lymph node metastases within five cases of prostate cancer, we demonstrate that both DNA methylation and copy-number heterogeneity consistently reflect the life history of the tumors. Furthermore, we show cases of genetic or epigenetic convergent evolution and highlight the diversity in the evolutionary origins and aberration spectrum between tumor and metastatic subclones. Importantly, DNA methylation can complement genetic data by serving as a proxy for activity at regulatory domains, as we show through identification of high epigenetic heterogeneity at androgen-receptor-bound enhancers. Epigenome variation thereby expands on the current genome-centric view on tumor heterogeneity.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25066126
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  • 2
    Abstract: Mutations in the histone 3 variant H3.3 have been identified in one-third of pediatric glioblastomas (GBMs), but not in adult tumors. Here we show that H3.3 is a dynamic determinant of functional properties in adult GBM. H3.3 is repressed by mixed lineage leukemia 5 (MLL5) in self-renewing GBM cells. MLL5 is a global epigenetic repressor that orchestrates reorganization of chromatin structure by punctuating chromosomes with foci of compacted chromatin, favoring tumorigenic and self-renewing properties. Conversely, H3.3 antagonizes self-renewal and promotes differentiation. We exploited these epigenetic states to rationally identify two small molecules that effectively curb cancer stem cell properties in a preclinical model. Our work uncovers a role for MLL5 and H3.3 in maintaining self-renewal hierarchies in adult GBM.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26626085
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  • 3
    Abstract: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent an attractive class of candidates to mediate cancer risk. Through integrative analysis of the lncRNA transcriptome with genomic data and SNP data from prostate cancer genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we identified 45 candidate lncRNAs associated with risk to prostate cancer. We further evaluated the mechanism underlying the top hit, PCAT1, and found that a risk-associated variant at rs7463708 increases binding of ONECUT2, a novel androgen receptor (AR)-interacting transcription factor, at a distal enhancer that loops to the PCAT1 promoter, resulting in upregulation of PCAT1 upon prolonged androgen treatment. In addition, PCAT1 interacts with AR and LSD1 and is required for their recruitment to the enhancers of GNMT and DHCR24, two androgen late-response genes implicated in prostate cancer development and progression. PCAT1 promotes prostate cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that modulating lncRNA expression is an important mechanism for risk-associated SNPs in promoting prostate transformation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27526323
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  • 4
    Keywords: CELLS ; GROWTH ; IN-VIVO ; ASSOCIATION ; PHASE ; CYCLIN D1 EXPRESSION ; FACTOR-BINDING PROTEIN-5 ; FUNCTIONAL VARIANTS ; FOXA1
    Abstract: GWAS have identified a breast cancer susceptibility locus on 2q35. Here we report the fine mapping of this locus using data from 101,943 subjects from 50 case-control studies. We genotype 276 SNPs using the 'iCOGS' genotyping array and impute genotypes for a further 1,284 using 1000 Genomes Project data. All but two, strongly correlated SNPs (rs4442975 G/T and rs6721996 G/A) are excluded as candidate causal variants at odds against 〉100:1. The best functional candidate, rs4442975, is associated with oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) disease with an odds ratio (OR) in Europeans of 0.85 (95% confidence interval = 0.84 - 0.87; P = 1.7 x 10(-43)) per t-allele. This SNP flanks a transcriptional enhancer that physically interacts with the promoter of IGFBP5 (encoding insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5) and displays allele-specific gene expression, FOXA1 binding and chromatin looping. Evidence suggests that the g-allele confers increased breast cancer susceptibility through relative downregulation of IGFBP5, a gene with known roles in breast cell biology.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25248036
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  • 5
    Abstract: The transcription factor Myc is essential for the regulation of haematopoietic stem cells and progenitors and has a critical function in haematopoietic malignancies. Here we show that an evolutionarily conserved region located 1.7 megabases downstream of the Myc gene that has previously been labelled as a 'super-enhancer' is essential for the regulation of Myc expression levels in both normal haematopoietic and leukaemic stem cell hierarchies in mice and humans. Deletion of this region in mice leads to a complete loss of Myc expression in haematopoietic stem cells and progenitors. This caused an accumulation of differentiation-arrested multipotent progenitors and loss of myeloid and B cells, mimicking the phenotype caused by Mx1-Cre-mediated conditional deletion of the Myc gene in haematopoietic stem cells. This super-enhancer comprises multiple enhancer modules with selective activity that recruits a compendium of transcription factors, including GFI1b, RUNX1 and MYB. Analysis of mice carrying deletions of individual enhancer modules suggests that specific Myc expression levels throughout most of the haematopoietic hierarchy are controlled by the combinatorial and additive activity of individual enhancer modules, which collectively function as a 'blood enhancer cluster' (BENC). We show that BENC is also essential for the maintenance of MLL-AF9-driven leukaemia in mice. Furthermore, a BENC module, which controls Myc expression in mouse haematopoietic stem cells and progenitors, shows increased chromatin accessibility in human acute myeloid leukaemia stem cells compared to blasts. This difference correlates with MYC expression and patient outcome. We propose that clusters of enhancers, such as BENC, form highly combinatorial systems that allow precise control of gene expression across normal cellular hierarchies and which also can be hijacked in malignancies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29342133
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  • 6
    Keywords: COLORECTAL-CANCER ; ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC-LEUKEMIA ; STEM-CELLS ; medulloblastoma ; GLIOBLASTOMA ; GENE-EXPRESSION SIGNATURE ; DISTINCT SUBGROUPS ; ISLAND METHYLATOR PHENOTYPE ; DRIVER MUTATIONS ; GENOMIC COMPLEXITY
    Abstract: Ependymomas are common childhood brain tumours that occur throughout the nervous system, but are most common in the paediatric hindbrain. Current standard therapy comprises surgery and radiation, but not cytotoxic chemotherapy as it does not further increase survival. Whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing of 47 hindbrain ependymomas reveals an extremely low mutation rate, and zero significant recurrent somatic single nucleotide variants. Although devoid of recurrent single nucleotide variants and focal copy number aberrations, poor-prognosis hindbrain ependymomas exhibit a CpG island methylator phenotype. Transcriptional silencing driven by CpG methylation converges exclusively on targets of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 which represses expression of differentiation genes through trimethylation of H3K27. CpG island methylator phenotype-positive hindbrain ependymomas are responsive to clinical drugs that target either DNA or H3K27 methylation both in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that epigenetic modifiers are the first rational therapeutic candidates for this deadly malignancy, which is epigenetically deregulated but genetically bland.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24553142
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0167-5087
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-02-21
    Description: Ependymomas are common childhood brain tumours that occur throughout the nervous system, but are most common in the paediatric hindbrain. Current standard therapy comprises surgery and radiation, but not cytotoxic chemotherapy as it does not further increase survival. Whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing of 47 hindbrain ependymomas reveals an extremely low mutation rate, and zero significant recurrent somatic single nucleotide variants. Although devoid of recurrent single nucleotide variants and focal copy number aberrations, poor-prognosis hindbrain ependymomas exhibit a CpG island methylator phenotype. Transcriptional silencing driven by CpG methylation converges exclusively on targets of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 which represses expression of differentiation genes through trimethylation of H3K27. CpG island methylator phenotype-positive hindbrain ependymomas are responsive to clinical drugs that target either DNA or H3K27 methylation both in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that epigenetic modifiers are the first rational therapeutic candidates for this deadly malignancy, which is epigenetically deregulated but genetically bland.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4174313/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4174313/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mack, S C -- Witt, H -- Piro, R M -- Gu, L -- Zuyderduyn, S -- Stutz, A M -- Wang, X -- Gallo, M -- Garzia, L -- Zayne, K -- Zhang, X -- Ramaswamy, V -- Jager, N -- Jones, D T W -- Sill, M -- Pugh, T J -- Ryzhova, M -- Wani, K M -- Shih, D J H -- Head, R -- Remke, M -- Bailey, S D -- Zichner, T -- Faria, C C -- Barszczyk, M -- Stark, S -- Seker-Cin, H -- Hutter, S -- Johann, P -- Bender, S -- Hovestadt, V -- Tzaridis, T -- Dubuc, A M -- Northcott, P A -- Peacock, J -- Bertrand, K C -- Agnihotri, S -- Cavalli, F M G -- Clarke, I -- Nethery-Brokx, K -- Creasy, C L -- Verma, S K -- Koster, J -- Wu, X -- Yao, Y -- Milde, T -- Sin-Chan, P -- Zuccaro, J -- Lau, L -- Pereira, S -- Castelo-Branco, P -- Hirst, M -- Marra, M A -- Roberts, S S -- Fults, D -- Massimi, L -- Cho, Y J -- Van Meter, T -- Grajkowska, W -- Lach, B -- Kulozik, A E -- von Deimling, A -- Witt, O -- Scherer, S W -- Fan, X -- Muraszko, K M -- Kool, M -- Pomeroy, S L -- Gupta, N -- Phillips, J -- Huang, A -- Tabori, U -- Hawkins, C -- Malkin, D -- Kongkham, P N -- Weiss, W A -- Jabado, N -- Rutka, J T -- Bouffet, E -- Korbel, J O -- Lupien, M -- Aldape, K D -- Bader, G D -- Eils, R -- Lichter, P -- Dirks, P B -- Pfister, S M -- Korshunov, A -- Taylor, M D -- P30 CA016672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50 CA097257/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA121941/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA148621/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA163737/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA148699/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA159859/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- England -- Nature. 2014 Feb 27;506(7489):445-50. doi: 10.1038/nature13108. Epub 2014 Feb 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Developmental & Stem Cell Biology Program, Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada [2] Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada [3] Division of Neurosurgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada [4]. ; 1] Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany [2] Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [3] German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 69120, Germany [4]. ; 1] German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] Division of Molecular Genetics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; 1] German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] Division of Theoretical Bioinformatics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; Department of Molecular Genetics, Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, The Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 1X8, Canada. ; 1] German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] Genome Biology, European Molecular Biology, Laboratory Meyerhofstr. 1, Heidelberg 69117, Germany. ; 1] Developmental & Stem Cell Biology Program, Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada [2] Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; Developmental & Stem Cell Biology Program, Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada. ; Department of Genetics, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756, USA. ; 1] Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany [2] German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; 1] German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] Division of Bioinformatics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Children's Hospital Boston, MIT, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; 1] Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre-University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada [2] Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada. ; Cancer Epigenetics Discovery Performance Unit, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426, USA. ; Department of Oncogenomics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam 1105, The Netherlands. ; 1] Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 69120, Germany [3] CCU Pediatric Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; 1] Centre for High-Throughput Biology, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, V6T 1Z4 British Columbia, Canada [2] Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3, Canada. ; 1] Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3, Canada [2] Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6H 3N1, Canada. ; Department of Pediatrics and National Capital Consortium, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, Maryland 20814, USA. ; Department of Neurosurgery, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA. ; Pediatric Neurosurgery, Catholic University Medical School, Gemelli Hospital, Rome 00168, Italy. ; Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics, Virginia Commonwealth, Richmond, Virginia 23298-0646, USA. ; Department of Pathology, University of Warsaw, Children's Memorial Health Institute University of Warsaw, Warsaw 04-730, Poland. ; Division of Anatomical Pathology, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton General Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada. ; 1] Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; 1] German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] Department of Neuropathology Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Institute of Pathology, Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; 1] University of Michigan Cell and Developmental Biology, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2200, USA [2] Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Department of Neurosurgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-0112, USA. ; Departments of Neurology, Pediatrics, and Neurosurgery, University of California, San Francisco, The Helen Diller Family Cancer Research Building, San Francisco, California 94158, USA. ; 1] Developmental & Stem Cell Biology Program, Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada [2] Department of Neuro-oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada. ; Department of Haematology and Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada. ; 1] Developmental & Stem Cell Biology Program, Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada [2] Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada [3] Division of Neurosurgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; Departments of Pediatrics and Human Genetics, McGill University and the McGill University Health Center Research Institute, Montreal, Quebec H3Z 2Z3, Canada. ; Department of Neuro-oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada. ; Genome Biology, European Molecular Biology, Laboratory Meyerhofstr. 1, Heidelberg 69117, Germany. ; 1] Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre-University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada [2] Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada [3] Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada. ; 1] Developmental & Stem Cell Biology Program, Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada [2] Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada [3] Division of Neurosurgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada [4] Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; 1] Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany [2] Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [3] German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 69120, Germany. ; 1] German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] University of Michigan Cell and Developmental Biology, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2200, USA [3] CCU Neuropathology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24553142" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy/genetics ; CpG Islands/*genetics ; DNA Methylation/drug effects ; Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism ; Ependymoma/drug therapy/*genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic/*genetics ; Epigenomics ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Gene Silencing/drug effects ; Histones/drug effects/metabolism ; Humans ; Infant ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred NOD ; Mice, SCID ; Mutation/genetics ; Phenotype ; Polycomb Repressive Complex 2/metabolism ; Prognosis ; Rhombencephalon/pathology ; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-04-14
    Description: Cancer is characterized by gene expression aberrations. Studies have largely focused on coding sequences and promoters, even though distal regulatory elements play a central role in controlling transcription patterns. We used the histone mark H3K4me1 to analyze gain and loss of enhancer activity genome-wide in primary colon cancer lines relative to normal colon crypts. We identified thousands of variant enhancer loci (VELs) that comprise a signature that is robustly predictive of the in vivo colon cancer transcriptome. Furthermore, VELs are enriched in haplotype blocks containing colon cancer genetic risk variants, implicating these genomic regions in colon cancer pathogenesis. We propose that reproducible changes in the epigenome at enhancer elements drive a specific transcriptional program to promote colon carcinogenesis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3711120/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3711120/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Akhtar-Zaidi, Batool -- Cowper-Sal-lari, Richard -- Corradin, Olivia -- Saiakhova, Alina -- Bartels, Cynthia F -- Balasubramanian, Dheepa -- Myeroff, Lois -- Lutterbaugh, James -- Jarrar, Awad -- Kalady, Matthew F -- Willis, Joseph -- Moore, Jason H -- Tesar, Paul J -- Laframboise, Thomas -- Markowitz, Sanford -- Lupien, Mathieu -- Scacheri, Peter C -- 1P50CA150964/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 5T32GM008056-29/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P20 GM103534/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 CA150964/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA155004/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA160356/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 LM009012/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- R01 LM010098/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- R01-LM009012/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- R01-LM010098/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- R01CA1555004/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA160356/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01HD056369/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA152756/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR024989/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 May 11;336(6082):736-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1217277. Epub 2012 Apr 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genetics and Genome Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22499810" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cell Line, Tumor ; Chromatin Immunoprecipitation ; Colon/metabolism ; Colonic Neoplasms/*genetics/metabolism ; *Enhancer Elements, Genetic ; *Epigenesis, Genetic ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Genes, Neoplasm ; Genetic Loci ; Histones/*metabolism ; Humans ; Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism ; Methylation ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; *Transcriptome
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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