Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract Of 163 individuals with a diagnosis of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), only one subject was found to be positive for familial defective apo B-100 (FDB). The eight-member kindred ascertained through this subject who presented with both a clinical phenotype of FH and the FDB apo B-100 (Arg3500→-Gln) mutation was studied. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein profiles, apo E phenotypes, apo B gene markers at the 3′ hypervariable region and LDL-receptor haplotypes (ApaLI, PvuII, NcoI), were determined, together with LDL-receptor activity on freshly isolated blood lymphocytes. The FDB mutation, present in four relatives, was associated with three different phenotypes: FH and severe hypercholesterolemia, moderate hypercholesterolemia and normolipidemia. The FH phenotype occurred in the absence of any functional LDL-receptor defect. In homozygotes for the absence of the PvuII cutting site who had the apo B mutation, LDL-cholesterol levels were low in the presence of the apo E3/2 phenotype and high in the presence of the apo E4/4 phenotype. None of the major known environmental influences accounted for the wide range of variation in LDL-cholesterol among the affected members. Further observations in the spouse and offspring of the normolipidemic FDB subject confirmed the association of apo E4, the FDB mutation and the PvuH(-/-) genotype with high cholesterol levels. It is concluded that the phenotypic expression of the FDB mutation may vary widely as a function of the genetic environment within a family. The presence of phenotypic heterogeneity among individuals with the same apo B mutation may result from epistatic interaction of the apo B locus with genetic factors regulating cholesterol homeostasis, including possible involvement of the apo E and the LDL-receptor gene loci. This study also confirms that the clinical diagnosis of FH is not necessarily associated with an LDL-receptor defect.
Type of Medium: