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  • 1
    ISSN: 1434-6079
    Keywords: 36.40 ; 07.75
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Clusters of Ar, Kr, Xe, N2, O2, CO2, SO2 and NH3 formed by supersonic nozzle expansion have been studied by electron impact ionization mass spectrometry (up to 15000 amu). Besides mass spectra of singly charged ions showing the characteristic anomalous distributions, we have in particular investigated the properties of multiply charged cluster ions. Critical appearance sizes of doubly and triply charged cluster ions, n2 and n3 respectively, found in the present study confirm recent theoretical predictions about n3/n2 and their dependence on the properties of the cluster constituents. The appearance energies of multiply charged cluster ions determined are shifted way below the appearance energies of the respective monomer ions. These huge red shifts together with the observed linear threshold laws and large maximum ionization efficiencies indicate that multiply charged cluster ions are produced by sequential single ionization events of one incoming electron at different cluster sites. Furthermore, we have also obtained for the first time clear evidence that (for electron energies above the appearance energy of doubly charged ions) an appreciable amount of singly charged (also fragment) ions is produced via Coulomb explosion of unstable doubly charged ions in the ion source.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-6079
    Keywords: 36.40 ; 34.80.G
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Electron attachment and electron impact ionization of SF6 clusters have been investigated quantitatively in a molecular beam/electron ion source/mass spectrometer system as a function of electron energy E (0≤E≤180 eV) and as a function of cluster size.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-6079
    Keywords: 36.40
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric, positive and negative oxygen cluster ions (n up to 70) have been produced in a crossed neutral beam/electron beam ion source. The abundance and stability of the ions formed have been analyzed with a double focussing sector field mass spectrometer in a series of experiments. Positive and negative ion mass spectra observed exhibit distinct abundance anomalies, however, at different cluster sizes. Abundance maxima and minima correlate with correspondingly small and large metastable fractions of (O2) n + and (O2) n − ions, respectively. (O2) n + ions may also lose up top=(n−1) monomers by collision induced dissociation with monotonously decreasing probability with increasingp. Metastable fractions determined for (O2) n − ions produced with appr. zero eV electrons are in general larger than those for ions produced with appr. 7 eV electrons. (O2) n − ions are also observed to decay via autodetachment, with lifetimes increasing with increasing cluster size. Finally, here we were able to prove that an apparent loss of the monomer fragment O (and higher homologues) observed in the metastable time regime is due to ordinary metastable monomer evaporation in the acceleration region. Moreover, we will also present here some new data and interpretation concerning the electron attachment cross section function for O2 clusters.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The European physical journal 12 (1989), S. 263-267 
    ISSN: 1434-6079
    Keywords: 36.40 ; 34.80.G
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Metastable decay of cluster ions has been discovered only recently. It was noted that one has to take this metastable decay into account when using mass spectrometry to probe neutral clusters, because ion abundance anomalies in mass spectra of rare gas and molecular clusters are caused by delayed metastable evaporation of monomers following ion production. Moreover, it was found that(i) the individual metastable reaction rates k depend strongly on cluster size and cluster ion production pathways and that(ii) there exists experimental evidence (k=k(t)) and a theoretical prediction that a given mass selected cluster ion generated by electron impact ionization of a nozzle expansion beam will comprise a range of metastable decay rates. In addition, it was discovered that metastable Ar cluster ions which lose two monomers in the μs time regime decay via sequential decay series Ar n + *→Ar n−1 + *→Ar n−2 + * with cluster sizes 7≤n≤10 andn=3 (similar results were obtained recently in case of N2 cluster ions). Conversely, the dominant metastable decay channel of Ar 4 + * into Ar 2 + was found to proceed predominantly via a single step fissioning process.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-6079
    Keywords: 33.80.G
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We have observed strong photodissociation (using visible laser light) of neutral van der Waals clusters (Ar, N2, O2, CO2, SO2, NH3) produced by supersonic expansion and detected by electron ionization/mass spectrometer. Several tests were performed, all of them supporting this surprising discovery. We suggest that Raman induced photodissociation (RIP) is responsible for this phenomenon. This first observation of Raman induced photodissociation provides a new technique for the study of neutral van der Waals clusters.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The European physical journal 26 (1993), S. 210-212 
    ISSN: 1434-6079
    Keywords: 36.40 +d ; 35.20
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Mixed ionized clusters have been produced in a supersonic nozzle beam experiment by attachment of stagnant cations (i.e. NO+ and Xe+) to neutral van der Waals clusters (i.e.Ar n ) within a Nier type ion source. This new ionization technique leads to less fragmentation than electron impact ionization and the measured cluster distributions exhibit icosahedral shell and subshell closures which have not been detected in the case of electron impact of Ar n -clusters ionization so far. Additionally, the obtained appearance energies and metastable fractions give insight into the production mechanism and the stability of the resulting ions.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-6079
    Keywords: 34.80.Dp ; 34.10.+x ; 34.80.−i
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Extending a recently developed semiclassical approach, we report the development of a formula which allows the satisfactory description and prediction of absolute electron impact ionization cross sections for K, L, and M inner-shell ionization in the energy range from threshold up to 109 eV for all elements. The present formulation also allows to derive and extend a previously noted scaling law for K-shell ionization. The present results are compared with previous theoretical and experimental determinations where available.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Highly-charged fullerene ions C 60 z+ and C 70 z+ with charge states up to z=7 have been produced in an electron impact ion source of a two sector field mass spectrometer by using ion source operating conditions similar to those used in EBIT sources. The stability of these ions was investigated quantitatively in the two field free regions of the mass spectrometer. It was found that besides C2 evaporation the dominant fission process for ions with charges larger than +2 is the loss of a charged C 2 + unit via a super-asymmetric charge separation reaction C 60 z+ → C 58 (z−1)+ +C 2 + and C 70 z+ → C 68 (z−1)+ +C 2 + , respectively. The most important finding from these studies is that this super-asymmetric dissociation reaction proceeds via a three stage reaction sequence involving an electron transfer reaction at the second stage between a receding C2 unit and the remaining highly-charged fullerene cage.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1434-6079
    Keywords: 36.40 ; 34.80.G
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract N2 cluster ions are produced by electron impact ionization of a supersonic N2 cluster beam and analyzed with a double focussing sector field mass spectrometer. It is found that metastable N2 cluster ions lose more than one N2 molecule in the μs time regime and decay predominantly via sequential series (N2) n + *→(N2) n−1 + *→...→N 2 + , evaporating a single monomer in each of these successive decay steps. The metastable decay rates determined in detail for cluster sizes 2≤n≤6 andn=20 lie between 1 and 106s−1. These rates(i) depend strongly on the time elapsed after ion formation and on the respective parent cluster ion size, and(ii) exhibit a quasiperiodic pattern in magnitude.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1434-6079
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Recently we have observed [1–4] photodissociation of neutral van der Waals clusters induced by visible laser light using coaxial interaction between the beams. Because of possible artifacts we have repeated here this experiment in a crossed beam configuration. The present results confirm the occurrence of this photodissociation effect. We suggest tentatively that excitation via Raman scattering is the origin of this phenomenon.
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