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  • 1
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Metal films are produced with a high degree of disorder by quenching condensation. The stored energy release and the resistivity decrease are measured during annealing of Au-, Pb-, and Sn-films from 20 to 60° K and during crystallization of amorphous Sn-films with a 10 atomic-% Cu-content. The results are compared with earlier measurements on Bi-, Ga-, and Cu-films produced by quenching condensation. The energy released during the crystallization of the amorphous films (Bi, Ga, Sn+10 at.-% Cu) amounts to half of the heat of melting. This is in good agreement with calculations ofOriani andLumsden for the disorder part of the entropy of melting. The recovery of the crystalline Cu-, Au-, Pb-, and Sn-films is described by a crystallization of highly disordered atoms to crystallites formed during condensation. About 30% of all atoms of these films are in this highly disordered state.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract A cryostat is described which allows to reach any temperature between 10 and 320° K in less than 4 min and to maintain it within ±0·1° K. The resistance of quenchingly condensated Cu, Pb, Sn, In, and Hg films is investigated. During isochronal annealing the high residual resistance after condensation decreases irreversibly, i.e. the mean free path of the electrons increases. By the annihilation of the lattice defects also the slope of the temperature dependent resistance is altered. This behaviour can be explained with the Bloch-Grüneisen theory by lowered characteristic temperaturesΘ R, which approach after annealing at higher temperatures the values of the bulk metals. The known shifts of the transition temperature of superconducting films after condensation are interpreted by these loweredΘ R-values, which are caused by volume increase, and the small mean free path of the normal electrons.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Copper films are produced by quenching condensation on a substrate at low temperature. A stored energy release of 216 cal/mole and a resistivity decrease of 1.8μΩcm are observed during annealing from 20 to 60 °K. In this temperature range the recovery of the films is described by a crystallisation of highly disordered material between small crystallites, which are produced during condensation. About 14 atomic-% of the whole film substance take part in this process. The stored energy-resistivity ratioE/Δϱ found is 1.9 cal/g/gm/gWcm in the whole temperature range from 20 to 60 °K. This value is in good agreement with the stored energy measurements on neutron-bombarded copper.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 77 (2000), S. 403-405 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Adsorption and desorption of C60 molecules on GaN{0001}-1×1 surfaces as well as the surface decomposition by heating were investigated with Auger electron spectroscopy. The first monolayer of C60 forms strong chemical bonds to the substrate atoms. A seven-step annealing procedure at temperatures up to 1275 K is presented which completely removes the adsorbed carbon without decomposing the surface. If the process is applied to clean, uncovered GaN{0001}-1×1 surfaces thermal etching with a significant Ga atom loss is observed. The results indicate that adsorbed C60 increases the thermal stability of the surfaces considerably and that thermal etching begins at defects or steps at the surface where the molecules are most strongly bound. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 80 (1996), S. 5076-5082 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The band lineup at metal–semiconductor contacts as well as at semiconductor heterostructures may be described by one and the same physical concept, the continuum of interface-induced gap states. These intrinsic interface states derive from the virtual gap states (ViGS) of the complex semiconductor band structure and their character varies from predominantly donorlike closer to the valence band to mostly acceptorlike nearer to the conduction band. Calculations are presented of the respective branch points for elemental and binary as well as ternary compound semiconductors which make use of Baldereschi's concept of mean-value points in the Brillouin zone [Phys. Rev. B 7, 5212 (1973)], Penn's idea of dielectric band gaps [Phys. Rev. 128, 2093 (1962)], and the empirical tight-binding approximation (ETB). The results are as follows. First, at the mean-value point the band gaps calculated in the GW approximation have the same widths as the dielectric band gaps. Second, the ETB approximation reproduces the GW valence-band energies at the mean-value point. Third, the branch points of the ViGS are slightly below midgap at the mean-value point. The ETB branch-point energies excellently reproduce the barrier heights of gold Schottky contacts on 19 semiconductors and the valence-band offsets of Al1−xGaxAs/GaAs heterostructures. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 72 (1998), S. 1899-1901 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Many metal chalcogenides are layered semiconductors. They consist of chalcogen–metal–chalcogen layers that are themselves bound by van der Waals forces. Hence, heterostructures involving layered compounds are abrupt and strain-free. Experimental valence-band offsets of heterostructures between GaSe, InSe, SnS2, SnSe2, MoS2, MoTe2, WSe2, and CuInSe2 and between some of these compounds and ZnSe, CdS, and CdTe as well as barrier heights of Au contacts on GaSe, InSe, MoS2, MoTe2, WSe2, ZnSe, CdS, and CdTe are analyzed. The valence-band discontinuities of the heterostructures and the barrier heights of the Schottky contact compounds are consistently described by the continuum of interface-induced gap states as the primary mechanism that governs the band lineup at semiconductor interfaces. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 71 (1997), S. 1231-1233 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Quaternary Ga0.18(1−y)InyTl0.82(1−y)P alloys are lattice matched with InP and their band gaps were predicted to be direct and to vary from zero width to 1.35 eV, the value of InP. This study calculates the branch points of the interface-induced gap states of the binary compound TlP and of the ternary GaTlP and InTlP as well as some quaternary GaInTlP alloys using an empirical tight-binding approach. Several predictions are made. First, the band lineup of lattice-matched InP/Ga0.18(1−y)InyTl0.82(1−y)P heterostructures is of type I. Second, the conduction-band discontinuities are larger than the valence-band offsets. And third, metal/Ga0.18(1−y)InyTl0.82(1−y)P contacts are naturally ohmic for indium contents y smaller than approximately 0.5. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 67 (1995), S. 2209-2211 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The alignment of the electronic band structures at contacts between solids is defined by the continuum of interface-induced gap states and the charge transfer across the interface. The barrier heights of metal–semiconductor contacts as well as the band edge discontinuities of semiconductor heterostructures are primarily described by the zero-charge-transfer barrier heights. This characteristic semiconductor property equals the energy distance between the majority-carrier band edge and the charge-neutrality level of the interface-induced gap states. The compositional trends of barrier heights of Al1−xInxAs, In1−xGaxAs, and Al1−xGaxAs Schottky contacts and of valence-band offsets of Al1−xGaxAs/GaAs heterostructures are analyzed. The zero-charge-transfer barrier heights of ternary compounds are found to vary linearly as a function of the compositional parameter x. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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