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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-06-11
    Description: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein kinase is a master growth promoter that nucleates two complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. Despite the diverse processes controlled by mTOR, few substrates are known. We defined the mTOR-regulated phosphoproteome by quantitative mass spectrometry and characterized the primary sequence motif specificity of mTOR using positional scanning peptide libraries. We found that the phosphorylation response to insulin is largely mTOR dependent and that mTOR exhibits a unique preference for proline, hydrophobic, and aromatic residues at the +1 position. The adaptor protein Grb10 was identified as an mTORC1 substrate that mediates the inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase typical of cells lacking tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), a tumor suppressor and negative regulator of mTORC1. Our work clarifies how mTORC1 inhibits growth factor signaling and opens new areas of investigation in mTOR biology.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3177140/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3177140/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hsu, Peggy P -- Kang, Seong A -- Rameseder, Jonathan -- Zhang, Yi -- Ottina, Kathleen A -- Lim, Daniel -- Peterson, Timothy R -- Choi, Yongmun -- Gray, Nathanael S -- Yaffe, Michael B -- Marto, Jarrod A -- Sabatini, David M -- AI47389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA112967/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- ES015339/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- GM68762/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866-09/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129105/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129105-05/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI047389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Jun 10;332(6035):1317-22. doi: 10.1126/science.1199498.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21659604" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; GRB10 Adaptor Protein/*metabolism ; Humans ; Insulin/metabolism ; Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/*metabolism ; Mass Spectrometry ; Mice ; Multiprotein Complexes ; Naphthyridines/pharmacology ; Phosphoproteins/metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Proteins/*metabolism ; Proteome/metabolism ; *Signal Transduction ; Sirolimus/pharmacology ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-04-13
    Description: Scaffold-assisted signaling cascades guide cellular decision-making. In budding yeast, one such signal transduction pathway called the mitotic exit network (MEN) governs the transition from mitosis to the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The MEN is conserved and in metazoans is known as the Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway. We found that signaling through the MEN kinase cascade was mediated by an unusual two-step process. The MEN kinase Cdc15 first phosphorylated the scaffold Nud1. This created a phospho-docking site on Nud1, to which the effector kinase complex Dbf2-Mob1 bound through a phosphoserine-threonine binding domain, in order to be activated by Cdc15. This mechanism of pathway activation has implications for signal transmission through other kinase cascades and might represent a general principle in scaffold-assisted signaling.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3884217/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3884217/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rock, Jeremy M -- Lim, Daniel -- Stach, Lasse -- Ogrodowicz, Roksana W -- Keck, Jamie M -- Jones, Michele H -- Wong, Catherine C L -- Yates, John R 3rd -- Winey, Mark -- Smerdon, Stephen J -- Yaffe, Michael B -- Amon, Angelika -- CA112967/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- ES015339/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- F32 GM086038/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM056800/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM51312/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- MC_U117584228/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P30 CA014051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P41 GM103533/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41 RR011823/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 ES015339/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM051312/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM056800/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R29 GM056800/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U117584228/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- U54 CA112967/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 May 17;340(6134):871-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1235822. Epub 2013 Apr 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23579499" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anaphase ; Cell Cycle Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Deoxyribonucleases/chemistry/*metabolism ; Enzyme Activation ; GTP-Binding Proteins/*metabolism ; *Mitosis ; Phosphoproteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Protein Conformation ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/*metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/cytology/*metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; tRNA Methyltransferases/chemistry/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-06-04
    Description: DNA damage activates a signalling network that blocks cell-cycle progression, recruits DNA repair factors and/or triggers senescence or programmed cell death. Alterations in chromatin structure are implicated in the initiation and propagation of the DNA damage response. Here we further investigate the role of chromatin structure in the DNA damage response by monitoring ionizing-radiation-induced signalling and response events with a high-content multiplex RNA-mediated interference screen of chromatin-modifying and -interacting genes. We discover that an isoform of Brd4, a bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family member, functions as an endogenous inhibitor of DNA damage response signalling by recruiting the condensin II chromatin remodelling complex to acetylated histones through bromodomain interactions. Loss of this isoform results in relaxed chromatin structure, rapid cell-cycle checkpoint recovery and enhanced survival after irradiation, whereas functional gain of this isoform compacted chromatin, attenuated DNA damage response signalling and enhanced radiation-induced lethality. These data implicate Brd4, previously known for its role in transcriptional control, as an insulator of chromatin that can modulate the signalling response to DNA damage.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3683358/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3683358/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Floyd, Scott R -- Pacold, Michael E -- Huang, Qiuying -- Clarke, Scott M -- Lam, Fred C -- Cannell, Ian G -- Bryson, Bryan D -- Rameseder, Jonathan -- Lee, Michael J -- Blake, Emily J -- Fydrych, Anna -- Ho, Richard -- Greenberger, Benjamin A -- Chen, Grace C -- Maffa, Amanda -- Del Rosario, Amanda M -- Root, David E -- Carpenter, Anne E -- Hahn, William C -- Sabatini, David M -- Chen, Clark C -- White, Forest M -- Bradner, James E -- Yaffe, Michael B -- 1-U54-CA112967-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- ES-002109/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 ES002109/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- P30-CA14051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 ES015339/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R01-ES15339/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R21 CA109661/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R21 NS063917/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R21-NS063917/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- U54 CA112967/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jun 13;498(7453):246-50. doi: 10.1038/nature12147. Epub 2013 Jun 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23728299" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism ; Cell Cycle Checkpoints/radiation effects ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Survival/radiation effects ; Chromatin/chemistry/*metabolism/radiation effects ; *Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly/radiation effects ; *DNA Damage ; DNA Repair/radiation effects ; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Histones/chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Lysine/chemistry/metabolism ; Multiprotein Complexes/metabolism ; Nuclear Proteins/chemistry/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation/radiation effects ; Positive Transcriptional Elongation Factor B/metabolism ; Protein Isoforms/metabolism ; Radiation, Ionizing ; *Signal Transduction/radiation effects ; Transcription Factors/chemistry/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-07-28
    Description: The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) protein kinase promotes growth and is the target of rapamycin, a clinically useful drug that also prolongs life span in model organisms. A persistent mystery is why the phosphorylation of many bona fide mTORC1 substrates is resistant to rapamycin. We find that the in vitro kinase activity of mTORC1 toward peptides encompassing established phosphorylation sites varies widely and correlates strongly with the resistance of the sites to rapamycin, as well as to nutrient and growth factor starvation within cells. Slight modifications of the sites were sufficient to alter mTORC1 activity toward them in vitro and to cause concomitant changes within cells in their sensitivity to rapamycin and starvation. Thus, the intrinsic capacity of a phosphorylation site to serve as an mTORC1 substrate, a property we call substrate quality, is a major determinant of its sensitivity to modulators of the pathway. Our results reveal a mechanism through which mTORC1 effectors can respond differentially to the same signals.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3771538/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3771538/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kang, Seong A -- Pacold, Michael E -- Cervantes, Christopher L -- Lim, Daniel -- Lou, Hua Jane -- Ottina, Kathleen -- Gray, Nathanael S -- Turk, Benjamin E -- Yaffe, Michael B -- Sabatini, David M -- AI047389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA112967/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- ES015339/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- GM59281/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129105/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI047389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jul 26;341(6144):1236566. doi: 10.1126/science.1236566.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23888043" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Motifs ; Amino Acids/metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Line ; Culture Media ; Humans ; Mice ; Multiprotein Complexes ; Naphthyridines/pharmacology ; Peptides/chemistry/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Sirolimus/*pharmacology ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors/*chemistry/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
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    The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: In this Editorial, the Chief Scientific Editor of Science Signaling predicts some of the emerging areas to watch for advances in signaling research in 2018.
    Print ISSN: 1945-0877
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-07-25
    Description: Cells respond to DNA damage by activating complex signaling networks that decide cell fate, promoting not only DNA damage repair and survival but also cell death. We have developed a multiscale computational model that quantitatively links chemotherapy-induced DNA damage response signaling to cell fate. The computational model was trained and calibrated on extensive data from U2OS osteosarcoma cells, including the cell cycle distribution of the initial cell population, signaling data measured by Western blotting, and cell fate data in response to chemotherapy treatment measured by time-lapse microscopy. The resulting mechanistic model predicted the cellular responses to chemotherapy alone and in combination with targeted inhibitors of the DNA damage response pathway, which we confirmed experimentally. Computational models such as the one presented here can be used to understand the molecular basis that defines the complex interplay between cell survival and cell death and to rationally identify chemotherapy-potentiating drug combinations.
    Print ISSN: 1945-0877
    Topics: Medicine
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