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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-10-09
    Description: Chronic hepatitis is the major cause of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Several factors affect portal pressure, including liver fibrosis, splanchnic vasodilatation, and pathologic angiogenesis. Nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUCs), the oral antiviral agents, effectively attenuate chronic hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension via viral suppression and alleviation of hepatitis. On the other hand, NUCs affect tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α , vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and nitric oxide, which participate in fibrogenesis, vasodilatation, and angiogenesis. However, whether NUCs independently influence liver fibrosis and portal hypertension beyond viral suppression is unknown. This study thus aimed to evaluate the influences of three frequently used NUCs in rats with nonviral cirrhosis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received common bile duct ligation (CBDL) to induce cholestatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension. The rats were randomly allocated into four groups, treated by mouth with lamivudine (30 mg/kg per day), entecavir (0.09 mg/kg per day), tenofovir (50 mg/kg per day), or distilled water (vehicle control) from the 15th day after CBDL. On the 29th day, liver cirrhosis- and portal hypertension-related parameters were evaluated. The results showed that chronic NUCs treatment did not affect hemodynamic parameters, plasma TNF- α concentration, and hepatic fibrogenesis protein expressions in rats with nonviral cirrhosis. Though the mesenteric VEGF receptor 2 phosphorylation was downregulated in NUCs-treated groups, the splanchnic angiogenesis was not influenced. In conclusion, lamivudine, entecavir, and tenofovir had no additional effects on liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension in rats with nonviral cirrhosis.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3565
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-0103
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-06-19
    Description: There is an urgent need for new drugs to treat malaria, with broad therapeutic potential and novel modes of action, to widen the scope of treatment and to overcome emerging drug resistance. Here we describe the discovery of DDD107498, a compound with a potent and novel spectrum of antimalarial activity against multiple life-cycle stages of the Plasmodium parasite, with good pharmacokinetic properties and an acceptable safety profile. DDD107498 demonstrates potential to address a variety of clinical needs, including single-dose treatment, transmission blocking and chemoprotection. DDD107498 was developed from a screening programme against blood-stage malaria parasites; its molecular target has been identified as translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2), which is responsible for the GTP-dependent translocation of the ribosome along messenger RNA, and is essential for protein synthesis. This discovery of eEF2 as a viable antimalarial drug target opens up new possibilities for drug discovery.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4700930/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4700930/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Baragana, Beatriz -- Hallyburton, Irene -- Lee, Marcus C S -- Norcross, Neil R -- Grimaldi, Raffaella -- Otto, Thomas D -- Proto, William R -- Blagborough, Andrew M -- Meister, Stephan -- Wirjanata, Grennady -- Ruecker, Andrea -- Upton, Leanna M -- Abraham, Tara S -- Almeida, Mariana J -- Pradhan, Anupam -- Porzelle, Achim -- Martinez, Maria Santos -- Bolscher, Judith M -- Woodland, Andrew -- Norval, Suzanne -- Zuccotto, Fabio -- Thomas, John -- Simeons, Frederick -- Stojanovski, Laste -- Osuna-Cabello, Maria -- Brock, Paddy M -- Churcher, Tom S -- Sala, Katarzyna A -- Zakutansky, Sara E -- Jimenez-Diaz, Maria Belen -- Sanz, Laura Maria -- Riley, Jennifer -- Basak, Rajshekhar -- Campbell, Michael -- Avery, Vicky M -- Sauerwein, Robert W -- Dechering, Koen J -- Noviyanti, Rintis -- Campo, Brice -- Frearson, Julie A -- Angulo-Barturen, Inigo -- Ferrer-Bazaga, Santiago -- Gamo, Francisco Javier -- Wyatt, Paul G -- Leroy, Didier -- Siegl, Peter -- Delves, Michael J -- Kyle, Dennis E -- Wittlin, Sergio -- Marfurt, Jutta -- Price, Ric N -- Sinden, Robert E -- Winzeler, Elizabeth A -- Charman, Susan A -- Bebrevska, Lidiya -- Gray, David W -- Campbell, Simon -- Fairlamb, Alan H -- Willis, Paul A -- Rayner, Julian C -- Fidock, David A -- Read, Kevin D -- Gilbert, Ian H -- 079838/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 091625/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 100476/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- R01 AI090141/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI103058/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jun 18;522(7556):315-20. doi: 10.1038/nature14451.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Drug Discovery Unit, Division of Biological Chemistry and Drug Discovery, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Malaria Programme, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ; Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK. ; University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, 9500 Gilman Drive 0760, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Global Health and Tropical Medicine Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, PO Box 41096, Casuarina, Darwin, Northern Territory 0811, Australia. ; Department of Global Health, College of Public Health University of South Florida, 3720 Spectrum Boulevard, Suite 304, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA. ; GlaxoSmithKline, Tres Cantos Medicines Development Campus-Diseases of the Developing World, Severo Ochoa 2, Tres Cantos 28760, Madrid, Spain. ; TropIQ Health Sciences, Geert Grooteplein 28, Huispost 268, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands. ; Centre for Drug Candidate Optimisation, Monash University, 381 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia. ; Eskitis Institute, Brisbane Innovation Park, Nathan Campus, Griffith University, Queensland 4111, Australia. ; Malaria Pathogenesis Laboratory, Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, Jalan Diponegoro 69, 10430 Jakarta, Indonesia. ; Medicines for Malaria Venture, PO Box 1826, 20 route de Pre-Bois, 1215 Geneva 15, Switzerland. ; Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, 4051 Basel, Switzerland. ; 1] Global Health and Tropical Medicine Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, PO Box 41096, Casuarina, Darwin, Northern Territory 0811, Australia [2] Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK. ; 1] Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA [2] Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26085270" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antimalarials/administration & dosage/adverse ; effects/pharmacokinetics/*pharmacology ; Drug Discovery ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation/*drug effects ; Life Cycle Stages/drug effects ; Liver/drug effects/parasitology ; Malaria/drug therapy/*parasitology ; Male ; Models, Molecular ; Peptide Elongation Factor 2/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Plasmodium/*drug effects/genetics/growth & development/*metabolism ; Plasmodium berghei/drug effects/physiology ; Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects/metabolism ; Plasmodium vivax/drug effects/metabolism ; Protein Biosynthesis/*drug effects ; Quinolines/administration & dosage/chemistry/pharmacokinetics/*pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-11-19
    Description: Most malaria drug development focuses on parasite stages detected in red blood cells, even though, to achieve eradication, next-generation drugs active against both erythrocytic and exo-erythrocytic forms would be preferable. We applied a multifactorial approach to a set of 〉4000 commercially available compounds with previously demonstrated blood-stage activity (median inhibitory concentration 〈 1 micromolar) and identified chemical scaffolds with potent activity against both forms. From this screen, we identified an imidazolopiperazine scaffold series that was highly enriched among compounds active against Plasmodium liver stages. The orally bioavailable lead imidazolopiperazine confers complete causal prophylactic protection (15 milligrams/kilogram) in rodent models of malaria and shows potent in vivo blood-stage therapeutic activity. The open-source chemical tools resulting from our effort provide starting points for future drug discovery programs, as well as opportunities for researchers to investigate the biology of exo-erythrocytic forms.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3473092/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3473092/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Meister, Stephan -- Plouffe, David M -- Kuhen, Kelli L -- Bonamy, Ghislain M C -- Wu, Tao -- Barnes, S Whitney -- Bopp, Selina E -- Borboa, Rachel -- Bright, A Taylor -- Che, Jianwei -- Cohen, Steve -- Dharia, Neekesh V -- Gagaring, Kerstin -- Gettayacamin, Montip -- Gordon, Perry -- Groessl, Todd -- Kato, Nobutaka -- Lee, Marcus C S -- McNamara, Case W -- Fidock, David A -- Nagle, Advait -- Nam, Tae-gyu -- Richmond, Wendy -- Roland, Jason -- Rottmann, Matthias -- Zhou, Bin -- Froissard, Patrick -- Glynne, Richard J -- Mazier, Dominique -- Sattabongkot, Jetsumon -- Schultz, Peter G -- Tuntland, Tove -- Walker, John R -- Zhou, Yingyao -- Chatterjee, Arnab -- Diagana, Thierry T -- Winzeler, Elizabeth A -- R01 AI079709/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI079709-04/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI090141/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI090141-02/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01AI090141/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- WT078285/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Dec 9;334(6061):1372-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1211936. Epub 2011 Nov 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genetics, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22096101" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antimalarials/chemistry/pharmacokinetics/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Cell Line, Tumor ; *Drug Discovery ; Drug Evaluation, Preclinical ; Drug Resistance ; Erythrocytes/parasitology ; Humans ; Imidazoles/chemistry/pharmacokinetics/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Liver/*parasitology ; Malaria/*drug therapy/parasitology/prevention & control ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Molecular Structure ; Piperazines/chemistry/pharmacokinetics/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Plasmodium/cytology/*drug effects/growth & development/physiology ; Plasmodium berghei/cytology/drug effects/growth & development/physiology ; Plasmodium falciparum/cytology/drug effects/growth & development/physiology ; Plasmodium yoelii/cytology/drug effects/growth & development/physiology ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Protozoan Proteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Random Allocation ; Small Molecule Libraries ; Sporozoites/drug effects/growth & development
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-11-29
    Description: Achieving the goal of malaria elimination will depend on targeting Plasmodium pathways essential across all life stages. Here we identify a lipid kinase, phosphatidylinositol-4-OH kinase (PI(4)K), as the target of imidazopyrazines, a new antimalarial compound class that inhibits the intracellular development of multiple Plasmodium species at each stage of infection in the vertebrate host. Imidazopyrazines demonstrate potent preventive, therapeutic, and transmission-blocking activity in rodent malaria models, are active against blood-stage field isolates of the major human pathogens P. falciparum and P. vivax, and inhibit liver-stage hypnozoites in the simian parasite P. cynomolgi. We show that imidazopyrazines exert their effect through inhibitory interaction with the ATP-binding pocket of PI(4)K, altering the intracellular distribution of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate. Collectively, our data define PI(4)K as a key Plasmodium vulnerability, opening up new avenues of target-based discovery to identify drugs with an ideal activity profile for the prevention, treatment and elimination of malaria.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3940870/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3940870/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McNamara, Case W -- Lee, Marcus C S -- Lim, Chek Shik -- Lim, Siau Hoi -- Roland, Jason -- Nagle, Advait -- Simon, Oliver -- Yeung, Bryan K S -- Chatterjee, Arnab K -- McCormack, Susan L -- Manary, Micah J -- Zeeman, Anne-Marie -- Dechering, Koen J -- Kumar, T R Santha -- Henrich, Philipp P -- Gagaring, Kerstin -- Ibanez, Maureen -- Kato, Nobutaka -- Kuhen, Kelli L -- Fischli, Christoph -- Rottmann, Matthias -- Plouffe, David M -- Bursulaya, Badry -- Meister, Stephan -- Rameh, Lucia -- Trappe, Joerg -- Haasen, Dorothea -- Timmerman, Martijn -- Sauerwein, Robert W -- Suwanarusk, Rossarin -- Russell, Bruce -- Renia, Laurent -- Nosten, Francois -- Tully, David C -- Kocken, Clemens H M -- Glynne, Richard J -- Bodenreider, Christophe -- Fidock, David A -- Diagana, Thierry T -- Winzeler, Elizabeth A -- 078285/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 089275/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090534/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 096157/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- R01 AI079709/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI085584/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI090141/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI103058/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01079709/PHS HHS/ -- R01085584/PHS HHS/ -- R01AI090141/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- WT078285/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT096157/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2013 Dec 12;504(7479):248-53. doi: 10.1038/nature12782. Epub 2013 Nov 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, San Diego, California 92121, USA [2]. ; 1] Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA [2]. ; Novartis Institutes for Tropical Disease, 138670 Singapore. ; Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, San Diego, California 92121, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Department of Parasitology, Biomedical Primate Research Centre, PO Box 3306, 2280 GH Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ; TropIQ Health Sciences, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands. ; Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland. ; 1] Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland [2] University of Basel, CH-4003 Basel, Switzerland. ; Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland. ; 1] TropIQ Health Sciences, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands [2] Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud University, Nijmegen Medical CentrePO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. ; Laboratory of Malaria Immunobiology, Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, 138648 Singapore. ; 1] Laboratory of Malaria Immunobiology, Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, 138648 Singapore [2] Department of Microbiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, 117545 Singapore. ; 1] Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK [2] Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Mae Sot 63110, Thailand. ; 1] Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA [2] Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; 1] Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, San Diego, California 92121, USA [2] Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24284631" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase/*antagonists & ; inhibitors/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism ; Animals ; Binding Sites ; Cytokinesis/drug effects ; Drug Resistance/drug effects/genetics ; Fatty Acids/metabolism ; Female ; Hepatocytes/parasitology ; Humans ; Imidazoles/metabolism/pharmacology ; Life Cycle Stages/drug effects ; Macaca mulatta ; Malaria/*drug therapy/*parasitology ; Male ; Models, Biological ; Models, Molecular ; Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates/metabolism ; Plasmodium/classification/*drug effects/*enzymology/growth & development ; Pyrazoles/metabolism/pharmacology ; Quinoxalines/metabolism/pharmacology ; Reproducibility of Results ; Schizonts/cytology/drug effects ; rab GTP-Binding Proteins/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-10-25
    Description: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a dismal prognosis, and it is unclear whether its stromal infiltrate contributes to its aggressiveness. Here, we demonstrate that Dickkopf-3 (DKK3) is produced by pancreatic stellate cells and is present in most human PDAC. DKK3 stimulates PDAC growth, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy with both paracrine and autocrine mechanisms through NF-B activation. Genetic ablation of DKK3 in an autochthonous model of PDAC inhibited tumor growth, induced a peritumoral infiltration of CD8 + T cells, and more than doubled survival. Treatment with a DKK3-blocking monoclonal antibody inhibited PDAC progression and chemoresistance and prolonged survival. The combination of DKK3 inhibition with immune checkpoint inhibition was more effective in reducing tumor growth than either treatment alone and resulted in a durable improvement in survival, suggesting that DKK3 neutralization may be effective as a single targeted agent or in combination with chemotherapy or immunotherapy for PDAC.
    Print ISSN: 1946-6234
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-6242
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: Aim: To evaluate the contribution of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype to the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Taiwan. Materials and Methods: In this hospital-based case–control study, the role of MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) genotypes in determining CRC risk were investigated among 362 patients with CRC and an equal number of age- and gender-matched healthy individuals. Results: The percentages of CC, CT and TT genotypes for MTHFR rs1801133 were 64.1%, 29.8% and 6.1% in the CRC group and 51.1%, 37.0% and 11.9% in the control group, respectively (p for trend=0.0006). Analysis of the allelic frequency distribution showed that the variant T allele of MTHFR rs1801133 conferred a lower CRC susceptibility than did the wild-type C allele (odds ratio(OR)=0.66, 95% confidence interval(CI)=0.52-0.84, p=4.32 x 10 –5 ). For the gene–lifestyle interaction, there were obvious protective effects of MTHFR rs1801133 T allele on the risk of CRC among non-smokers, ever smokers and non-alcohol drinkers, but not drinkers. Conclusion: MTHFR rs1801133 T allele serves as a predictive marker for CRC risk and future studies with larger samples and functional evaluation are warranted to validate the current findings.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: B lymphocytes migrate among varied microenvironmental niches during diversification, selection, and conversion to memory or Ab-secreting plasma cells. Aspects of the nutrient milieu differ within these lymphoid microenvironments and can influence signaling molecules such as the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). However, much remains to be elucidated as to the B cell–intrinsic functions of nutrient-sensing signal transducers that modulate B cell differentiation or Ab affinity. We now show that the amino acid–sensing mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) is vital for induction of Bcl6—a key transcriptional regulator of the germinal center (GC) fate—in activated B lymphocytes. Accordingly, disruption of mTORC1 after B cell development and activation led to reduced populations of Ag-specific memory B cells as well as plasma cells and GC B cells. In addition, induction of the germ line transcript that guides activation-induced deaminase in selection of the IgG1 H chain region during class switching required mTORC1. Expression of the somatic mutator activation-induced deaminase was reduced by a lack of mTORC1 in B cells, whereas point mutation frequencies in Ag-specific GC-phenotype B cells were only halved. These effects culminated in a B cell–intrinsic defect that impacted an antiviral Ab response and drastically impaired generation of high-affinity IgG1. Collectively, these data establish that mTORC1 governs critical B cell–intrinsic mechanisms essential for establishment of GC differentiation and effective Ab production.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled lectins were used to study the distribution of specific binding sites in histologic sections of mouse ovaries as well as ovulated ova. Four distinct patterns of reactivity of the components of the follicle (exclusive of the ovum) and the surrounding ovarian stroma were recognized: 1. uniform staining of granulosa cells, theca cells and surrounding stroma; 2. weak to moderate staining of the granulosa cells and strong staining of the theca cells and stromal cells; 3. no reactivity of the granulosa cells coupled with strong reactivity of the theca and stromal cells; 4. no reactivity with any component of thecumulus oophorus. Three lectins (from Triticum vulgare, Arachis hypogaea and Maclura pomifera) distinctly accentuated the basal lamina of thecumulus oophorus. The reaction of lectins with oocytes and zona pellucida revealed six distinct patterns: 1. no reactivity with either structure; 2. weak reactivity with the cytoplasm of the oocyte and no reactivity with the zona pellucida; 3. very strong reactivity with the cytoplasm of the oocyte and no reactivity with the zona pellucida; 4. moderate reactivity with both the oocyte and the zona pellucida; 5. moderate reactivity with the oocyte and very strong reactivity with the zona pellucida; 6. no reactivity with the oocyte and moderate reactivity with the zona pellucida. The same pattern of reactivity was seen in the ovulated ova in the oviduct except for the lectin from Arachis hypogaea, the reactivity of which changed upon ovulation and/or fertilization of the ovum. These data provide a list of lectin markers for distinct components of the mouse ovary.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled lectins were used to study the distribution of specific binding sites in histologic sections of mouse ovaries as well as ovulated ova. Four distinct patterns of reactivity of the components of the follicle (exclusive of the ovum) and the surrounding ovarian stroma were recognized: 1. uniform staining of granulosa cells, theca cells and surrounding stroma; 2. weak to moderate staining of the granulosa cells and strong staining of the theca cells and stromal cells; 3. no reactivity of the granulosa cells coupled with strong reactivity of the theca and stromal cells; 4. no reactivity with any component of thecumulus oophorus. Three lectins (from Triticum vulgare, Arachis hypogaea and Maclura pomifera) distinctly accentuated the basal lamina of thecumulus oophorus. The reaction of lectins with oocytes and zona pellucida revealed six distinct patterns: 1. no reactivity with either structure; 2. weak reactivity with the cytoplasm of the oocyte and no reactivity with the zona pellucida; 3. very strong reactivity with the cytoplasm of the oocyte and no reactivity with the zona pellucida; 4. moderate reactivity with both the oocyte and the zona pellucida; 5. moderate reactivity with the oocyte and very strong reactivity with the zona pellucida; 6. no reactivity with the oocyte and moderate reactivity with the zona pellucida. The same pattern of reactivity was seen in the ovulated ova in the oviduct except for the lectin from Arachis hypogaea, the reactivity of which changed upon ovulation and/or fertilization of the ovum. These data provide a list of lectin markers for distinct components of the mouse ovary.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The binding of 22 fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugated lectins to human proliferative phase and pregnant endometrium was studied histochemically. Only the lectin from Bauhinia purpurea (BPA) reacted exclusively with the epithelial cells. All the others reacted to a certain extent with glandular and/or stromal cells. Lectins from soybean (SBA), and Vicia villosa seeds (VVA) reacted with endometrial glands of pregnancy but not with the glands of the proliferative endometrium. In the proliferative endometrium SBA reacted only with cells of the surface endometrium. Lectin from peanuts (PNA) reacted only with some glands in the proliferative endometrium but was unreactive with others. In pregnant endometrium PNA reacted with all glands. Lectins from lentils (LCA) and red kidney beans (PHA-E and PHA-L) reacted with endometrial glands of the proliferative phase but not with the glands from pregnant endometrium. We thus show that FITC labeled lectins define specific carbohydrate moieties selectively expressed on either proliferative phase or pregnant endometrial glands.
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