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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: The regulation of water content in polymeric membranes is important in a number of applications, such as reverse electrodialysis and proton-exchange fuel-cell membranes. External thermal and water management systems add both mass and size to systems, and so intrinsic mechanisms of retaining water and maintaining ionic transport in such membranes are particularly important for applications where small system size is important. For example, in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells, where water retention in the membrane is crucial for efficient transport of hydrated ions, by operating the cells at higher temperatures without external humidification, the membrane is self-humidified with water generated by electrochemical reactions. Here we report an alternative solution that does not rely on external regulation of water supply or high temperatures. Water content in hydrocarbon polymer membranes is regulated through nanometre-scale cracks ('nanocracks') in a hydrophobic surface coating. These cracks work as nanoscale valves to retard water desorption and to maintain ion conductivity in the membrane on dehumidification. Hydrocarbon fuel-cell membranes with surface nanocrack coatings operated at intermediate temperatures show improved electrochemical performance, and coated reverse-electrodialysis membranes show enhanced ionic selectivity with low bulk resistance.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Park, Chi Hoon -- Lee, So Young -- Hwang, Doo Sung -- Shin, Dong Won -- Cho, Doo Hee -- Lee, Kang Hyuck -- Kim, Tae-Woo -- Kim, Tae-Wuk -- Lee, Mokwon -- Kim, Deok-Soo -- Doherty, Cara M -- Thornton, Aaron W -- Hill, Anita J -- Guiver, Michael D -- Lee, Young Moo -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):480-3. doi: 10.1038/nature17634.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Energy Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, South Korea. ; Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, South Korea. ; School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, South Korea. ; Manufacturing Flagship, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. ; State Key Laboratory of Engines, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China. ; Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27121841" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biomimetic Materials/chemistry ; Biomimetics ; Cactaceae/metabolism ; Desiccation ; Dialysis ; Electrochemistry ; Humidity ; Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions ; *Membranes, Artificial ; *Nanotechnology ; Plant Stomata/metabolism ; Polymers/*chemistry ; Protons ; Surface Properties ; Temperature ; Water/*analysis
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2013-01-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Guiver, Michael D -- Lee, Young Moo -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jan 18;339(6117):284-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1232714.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. michael.guiver@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23329040" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Ultrafiltration membranes were prepared from mixtures of poly(phenyl sulfone) (Radel R5000) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) dissolved in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP). The effects of the casting solution composition on membrane performance and morphology are presented. Radel R5000 membranes showed higher productivity for a given pore size when compared to other polysulfone membranes. The biphenyl group in Radel R5000 makes it more rigid in comparison to other polysulfones. This may result in more ordered packing, which resulted in the higher productivities and smaller pore sizes observed in the membranes. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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