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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-04-29
    Description: Innate immune cells must be able to distinguish between direct binding to microbes and detection of components shed from the surface of microbes located at a distance. Dectin-1 (also known as CLEC7A) is a pattern-recognition receptor expressed by myeloid phagocytes (macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils) that detects beta-glucans in fungal cell walls and triggers direct cellular antimicrobial activity, including phagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In contrast to inflammatory responses stimulated upon detection of soluble ligands by other pattern-recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), these responses are only useful when a cell comes into direct contact with a microbe and must not be spuriously activated by soluble stimuli. In this study we show that, despite its ability to bind both soluble and particulate beta-glucan polymers, Dectin-1 signalling is only activated by particulate beta-glucans, which cluster the receptor in synapse-like structures from which regulatory tyrosine phosphatases CD45 and CD148 (also known as PTPRC and PTPRJ, respectively) are excluded (Supplementary Fig. 1). The 'phagocytic synapse' now provides a model mechanism by which innate immune receptors can distinguish direct microbial contact from detection of microbes at a distance, thereby initiating direct cellular antimicrobial responses only when they are required.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3084546/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3084546/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Goodridge, Helen S -- Reyes, Christopher N -- Becker, Courtney A -- Katsumoto, Tamiko R -- Ma, Jun -- Wolf, Andrea J -- Bose, Nandita -- Chan, Anissa S H -- Magee, Andrew S -- Danielson, Michael E -- Weiss, Arthur -- Vasilakos, John P -- Underhill, David M -- AI066120/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI071116/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI066120/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI066120-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI071116/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI071116-04/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Apr 28;472(7344):471-5. doi: 10.1038/nature10071.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉IBD and Immunobiology Research Institute, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21525931" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, CD45/deficiency/metabolism ; Cell Wall/chemistry/immunology ; Cells, Cultured ; Humans ; Immunity, Innate/*immunology ; Immunological Synapses/*immunology ; Lectins, C-Type ; Macrophages/immunology ; Membrane Proteins/deficiency/genetics/*immunology ; Mice ; *Models, Immunological ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/deficiency/genetics/*immunology ; Phagocytosis/*immunology ; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism ; Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 3/deficiency/metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/chemistry/immunology ; Signal Transduction/immunology ; Solubility ; beta-Glucans/chemistry/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Bone ultrasound ; Osteoporosis fractures ; Race ; Ethnicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The lower fracture rates among African-American women relative to Caucasian women may reflect their higher bone mass. However, bone mass is not the only determinant of bone strength: the quality and microarchitecture of the bone are also important. Quantitative ultrasound is believed to measure properties of bone strength that are independent of bone mass. To test the hypothesis that there are racial differences in quantitative ultrasound measures of bone, we recruited 154 African-American women age ⩾65 years. A random sample of 300 Caucasian women participating in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was chosen for comparison. The Walker Sonix UBA 575+ was used to measure calcaneal broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA). Duplicate BUA measurements were obtained with a reproducibility of 5%. We measured bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip and calcaneus using single (calcaneus) or dual (hip) energy X-ray absorptiometry. The correlation between BUA and calcaneal BMD was similar in Caucasians (r=0.66,p〈0.001) and African-Americans (r=0.58,p〈0.001). Age-adjusted BUA (dB/MHz) was higher among the African-American women than Caucasian women (69.1 and 66.2, respectively), but these differences were not statistically significant, (p=0.12). Adjustment for calcaneal BMD completely attenuated the racial differences in BUA. BMD at the femoral neck and calcaneus was higher among the African-American women, even after adjusting for age, height and weight. In conclusion, our results suggest that racial differences in rates of fracture cannot be explained by differences in bone quality as assessed by ultrasound attenuation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Key words:African-Americans – Bone mineral density – Genetics – Osteoporosis – Vitamin D receptor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: A polymorphism at the first of two potential translation initiation codons in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene defined by the FokI restriction endonuclease has been associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) among Caucasian, Asian, and Mexican-American women. We tested the hypothesis that the FokI polymorphism is related to markers of osteoporotic risk in 104 community-dwelling African-American women aged 65 years and older. Six percent of the African-American women had the ff genotype, 32% were heterozygous, and 63% had the FF genotype. FokI genotype frequencies did not differ from Hardy–Weinberg expectations. Hip and calcaneal BMD, calcaneal ultrasound attenuation and hip geometry from pelvic radiographs did not differ significantly by FokI genotypes or between women with and without the rare FokI allele. There was also no association between the FokI polymorphism and biochemical markers of bone turnover or fractional calcium absorption. We conclude that the VDR start codon polymorphism does not have a major influence on osteoporotic risk in older African-American women.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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