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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-02-11
    Description: Genome-wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 9p21 gene desert associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and type 2 diabetes. Despite evidence for a role of the associated interval in neighbouring gene regulation, the biological underpinnings of these genetic associations with CAD or type 2 diabetes have not yet been explained. Here we identify 33 enhancers in 9p21; the interval is the second densest gene desert for predicted enhancers and six times denser than the whole genome (P 〈 6.55 x 10(-33)). The CAD risk alleles of SNPs rs10811656 and rs10757278 are located in one of these enhancers and disrupt a binding site for STAT1. Lymphoblastoid cell lines homozygous for the CAD risk haplotype show no binding of STAT1, and in lymphoblastoid cell lines homozygous for the CAD non-risk haplotype, binding of STAT1 inhibits CDKN2BAS (also known as CDKN2B-AS1) expression, which is reversed by short interfering RNA knockdown of STAT1. Using a new, open-ended approach to detect long-distance interactions, we find that in human vascular endothelial cells the enhancer interval containing the CAD locus physically interacts with the CDKN2A/B locus, the MTAP gene and an interval downstream of IFNA21. In human vascular endothelial cells, interferon-gamma activation strongly affects the structure of the chromatin and the transcriptional regulation in the 9p21 locus, including STAT1-binding, long-range enhancer interactions and altered expression of neighbouring genes. Our findings establish a link between CAD genetic susceptibility and the response to inflammatory signalling in a vascular cell type and thus demonstrate the utility of genome-wide association study findings in directing studies to novel genomic loci and biological processes important for disease aetiology.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3079517/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3079517/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Harismendy, Olivier -- Notani, Dimple -- Song, Xiaoyuan -- Rahim, Nazli G -- Tanasa, Bogdan -- Heintzman, Nathaniel -- Ren, Bing -- Fu, Xiang-Dong -- Topol, Eric J -- Rosenfeld, Michael G -- Frazer, Kelly A -- 1R21CA152613-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 1U54RR025204/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- 1UL1RR025774/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- 1UL1RR031980-01/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- CA97134/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DK018477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK074868/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK39949/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK74686/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- HL065445/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- L65445/PHS HHS/ -- NS34934/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 AG025204/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P01 AG025204-01/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA097134/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK018477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK018477-35/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK039949/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK039949-29/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL065445/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL065445-12/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS034934/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R21 CA152613/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R21 CA152613-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R21 CA152613-02/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK039949/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL107442/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR025774/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR025774-01/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR031980/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR031980-01/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Feb 10;470(7333):264-8. doi: 10.1038/nature09753.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pediatrics and Rady's Children's Hospital, University of California at San Diego, School of Medicine, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21307941" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Cell Line ; Chromatin/drug effects/genetics/metabolism ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9/*genetics ; Conserved Sequence/genetics ; Coronary Artery Disease/*genetics ; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15/genetics ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics ; Endothelial Cells/drug effects/metabolism ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/*genetics ; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects/genetics ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; *Genetic Variation ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Haplotypes/genetics ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Interferon-alpha/genetics ; Interferon-gamma/*pharmacology ; Linkage Disequilibrium ; Male ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Protein Binding/drug effects ; Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase/genetics ; STAT1 Transcription Factor/biosynthesis/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Signal Transduction/*drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-06-04
    Description: Rev-Erb-alpha and Rev-Erb-beta are nuclear receptors that regulate the expression of genes involved in the control of circadian rhythm, metabolism and inflammatory responses. Rev-Erbs function as transcriptional repressors by recruiting nuclear receptor co-repressor (NCoR)-HDAC3 complexes to Rev-Erb response elements in enhancers and promoters of target genes, but the molecular basis for cell-specific programs of repression is not known. Here we present evidence that in mouse macrophages Rev-Erbs regulate target gene expression by inhibiting the functions of distal enhancers that are selected by macrophage-lineage-determining factors, thereby establishing a macrophage-specific program of repression. Remarkably, the repressive functions of Rev-Erbs are associated with their ability to inhibit the transcription of enhancer-derived RNAs (eRNAs). Furthermore, targeted degradation of eRNAs at two enhancers subject to negative regulation by Rev-Erbs resulted in reduced expression of nearby messenger RNAs, suggesting a direct role of these eRNAs in enhancer function. By precisely defining eRNA start sites using a modified form of global run-on sequencing that quantifies nascent 5' ends, we show that transfer of full enhancer activity to a target promoter requires both the sequences mediating transcription-factor binding and the specific sequences encoding the eRNA transcript. These studies provide evidence for a direct role of eRNAs in contributing to enhancer functions and suggest that Rev-Erbs act to suppress gene expression at a distance by repressing eRNA transcription.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3839578/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3839578/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lam, Michael T Y -- Cho, Han -- Lesch, Hanna P -- Gosselin, David -- Heinz, Sven -- Tanaka-Oishi, Yumiko -- Benner, Christopher -- Kaikkonen, Minna U -- Kim, Aneeza S -- Kosaka, Mika -- Lee, Cindy Y -- Watt, Andy -- Grossman, Tamar R -- Rosenfeld, Michael G -- Evans, Ronald M -- Glass, Christopher K -- CA014195/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA17390/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA52599/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DK057978/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK063491/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK091183/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- HL088093/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL105278/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 DK074868/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL088093/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014195/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK063491/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA052599/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA173903/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK018477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK091183/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL105278/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK057978/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007198-37/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008666/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U19 DK062434/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U19DK62434/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jun 27;498(7455):511-5. doi: 10.1038/nature12209. Epub 2013 Jun 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23728303" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Binding Sites ; Down-Regulation/*genetics ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/*genetics ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Macrophages/*metabolism ; Mice ; Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group D, Member 1/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Organ Specificity ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; Response Elements/genetics ; Transcription, Genetic/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-07-19
    Description: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process involved in several physiological and pathological processes. Although primarily cytoprotective, autophagy can also contribute to cell death; it is thus important to understand what distinguishes the life or death decision in autophagic cells. Here we report that induction of autophagy is coupled to reduction of histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation (H4K16ac) through downregulation of the histone acetyltransferase hMOF (also called KAT8 or MYST1), and demonstrate that this histone modification regulates the outcome of autophagy. At a genome-wide level, we find that H4K16 deacetylation is associated predominantly with the downregulation of autophagy-related genes. Antagonizing H4K16ac downregulation upon autophagy induction results in the promotion of cell death. Our findings establish that alteration in a specific histone post-translational modification during autophagy affects the transcriptional regulation of autophagy-related genes and initiates a regulatory feedback loop, which serves as a key determinant of survival versus death responses upon autophagy induction.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4006103/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4006103/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fullgrabe, Jens -- Lynch-Day, Melinda A -- Heldring, Nina -- Li, Wenbo -- Struijk, Robert B -- Ma, Qi -- Hermanson, Ola -- Rosenfeld, Michael G -- Klionsky, Daniel J -- Joseph, Bertrand -- GM53396/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM053396/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Aug 22;500(7463):468-71. doi: 10.1038/nature12313. Epub 2013 Jul 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Oncology Pathology, Cancer Centrum Karolinska, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 17176, Sweden.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23863932" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation/drug effects ; *Autophagy/drug effects/genetics ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Nucleus/metabolism ; Cytoplasm/metabolism ; Down-Regulation/drug effects ; Epistasis, Genetic/drug effects ; Feedback, Physiological ; Histone Acetyltransferases/*metabolism ; Histones/*metabolism ; Humans ; Lysine/chemistry/metabolism ; Sirolimus/pharmacology ; Transcription, Genetic/drug effects/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-09-26
    Description: Post-translational histone modifications have a critical role in regulating transcription, the cell cycle, DNA replication and DNA damage repair. The identification of new histone modifications critical for transcriptional regulation at initiation, elongation or termination is of particular interest. Here we report a new layer of regulation in transcriptional elongation that is conserved from yeast to mammals. This regulation is based on the phosphorylation of a highly conserved tyrosine residue, Tyr 57, in histone H2A and is mediated by the unsuspected tyrosine kinase activity of casein kinase 2 (CK2). Mutation of Tyr 57 in H2A in yeast or inhibition of CK2 activity impairs transcriptional elongation in yeast as well as in mammalian cells. Genome-wide binding analysis reveals that CK2alpha, the catalytic subunit of CK2, binds across RNA-polymerase-II-transcribed coding genes and active enhancers. Mutation of Tyr 57 causes a loss of H2B mono-ubiquitination as well as H3K4me3 and H3K79me3, histone marks associated with active transcription. Mechanistically, both CK2 inhibition and the H2A(Y57F) mutation enhance H2B deubiquitination activity of the Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex, suggesting a critical role of this phosphorylation in coordinating the activity of the SAGA complex during transcription. Together, these results identify a new component of regulation in transcriptional elongation based on CK2-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of the globular domain of H2A.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4461219/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4461219/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Basnet, Harihar -- Su, Xue B -- Tan, Yuliang -- Meisenhelder, Jill -- Merkurjev, Daria -- Ohgi, Kenneth A -- Hunter, Tony -- Pillus, Lorraine -- Rosenfeld, Michael G -- CA173903/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA82683/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DK018477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK039949/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- GM033279/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HL065445/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- NS034934/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA023100/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK018477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM033279/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL065445/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS034934/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK039949/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- T32 DK007541/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Dec 11;516(7530):267-71. doi: 10.1038/nature13736. Epub 2014 Sep 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2] Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Division of Biological Sciences, Section of Molecular Biology, UCSD Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0347, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; 1] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2] Bioinformatics and Systems Biology Program, Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25252977" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Casein Kinase II/*metabolism ; Cell Line ; Conserved Sequence ; Histones/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phosphorylation ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics/metabolism ; *Transcription Elongation, Genetic ; Tyrosine/chemistry/*metabolism ; Ubiquitination/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-06-04
    Description: The functional importance of gene enhancers in regulated gene expression is well established. In addition to widespread transcription of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in mammalian cells, bidirectional ncRNAs are transcribed on enhancers, and are thus referred to as enhancer RNAs (eRNAs). However, it has remained unclear whether these eRNAs are functional or merely a reflection of enhancer activation. Here we report that in human breast cancer cells 17beta-oestradiol (E2)-bound oestrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha) causes a global increase in eRNA transcription on enhancers adjacent to E2-upregulated coding genes. These induced eRNAs, as functional transcripts, seem to exert important roles for the observed ligand-dependent induction of target coding genes, increasing the strength of specific enhancer-promoter looping initiated by ER-alpha binding. Cohesin, present on many ER-alpha-regulated enhancers even before ligand treatment, apparently contributes to E2-dependent gene activation, at least in part by stabilizing E2/ER-alpha/eRNA-induced enhancer-promoter looping. Our data indicate that eRNAs are likely to have important functions in many regulated programs of gene transcription.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3718886/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3718886/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Wenbo -- Notani, Dimple -- Ma, Qi -- Tanasa, Bogdan -- Nunez, Esperanza -- Chen, Aaron Yun -- Merkurjev, Daria -- Zhang, Jie -- Ohgi, Kenneth -- Song, Xiaoyuan -- Oh, Soohwan -- Kim, Hong-Sook -- Glass, Christopher K -- Rosenfeld, Michael G -- CA173903/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DK 039949/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK018477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- HL065445/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- NS034934/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA023100/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA23100/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA097134/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA173903/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK018477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK039949/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL065445/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS034934/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK039949/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009523/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jun 27;498(7455):516-20. doi: 10.1038/nature12210. Epub 2013 Jun 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23728302" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism ; Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone/metabolism ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/*genetics ; Estradiol/pharmacology ; Estrogen Receptor alpha/metabolism ; Estrogens/*pharmacology ; Humans ; Ligands ; MCF-7 Cells ; Nucleic Acid Conformation/drug effects ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; RNA, Untranslated/biosynthesis/*genetics/metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic/drug effects/genetics ; Transcriptional Activation/*drug effects/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-02-19
    Description: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) function as initiators of inflammation through their ability to sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns and products of tissue damage. Transcriptional activation of many TLR-responsive genes requires an initial de-repression step in which nuclear receptor co-repressor (NCoR) complexes are actively removed from the promoters of target genes to relieve basal repression. Ligand-dependent SUMOylation of liver X receptors (LXRs) has been found to suppress TLR4-induced transcription potently by preventing the NCoR clearance step, but the underlying mechanisms remain enigmatic. Here we provide evidence that coronin 2A (CORO2A), a component of the NCoR complex of previously unknown function, mediates TLR-induced NCoR turnover by a mechanism involving interaction with oligomeric nuclear actin. SUMOylated LXRs block NCoR turnover by binding to a conserved SUMO2/SUMO3-interaction motif in CORO2A and preventing actin recruitment. Intriguingly, the LXR transrepression pathway can itself be inactivated by inflammatory signals that induce calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIgamma (CaMKIIgamma)-dependent phosphorylation of LXRs, leading to their deSUMOylation by the SUMO protease SENP3 and release from CORO2A. These findings uncover a CORO2A-actin-dependent mechanism for the de-repression of inflammatory response genes that can be differentially regulated by phosphorylation and by nuclear receptor signalling pathways that control immunity and homeostasis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3464905/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3464905/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, Wendy -- Ghisletti, Serena -- Saijo, Kaoru -- Gandhi, Meghal -- Aouadi, Myriam -- Tesz, Greg J -- Zhang, Dawn X -- Yao, Joyee -- Czech, Michael P -- Goode, Bruce L -- Rosenfeld, Michael G -- Glass, Christopher K -- 1F31DK083913/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- CA52599/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DK074868/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK085853/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- HC088093/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 DK074868/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P50 HL056989/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA052599/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA097134/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK091183/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL065445/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS034934/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK039949/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Feb 17;470(7334):414-8. doi: 10.1038/nature09703.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0651, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21331046" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Actins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Animals ; Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2/metabolism ; Cell Line ; *Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; HeLa Cells ; Homeostasis/genetics ; Humans ; Inflammation/*genetics ; Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology ; Mice ; Microfilament Proteins/chemistry/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Orphan Nuclear Receptors/metabolism ; Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism ; Peritonitis/chemically induced/metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Signal Transduction ; Sumoylation ; Thioglycolates/pharmacology ; Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-05-17
    Description: Mammalian genomes are populated with thousands of transcriptional enhancers that orchestrate cell-type-specific gene expression programs, but how those enhancers are exploited to institute alternative, signal-dependent transcriptional responses remains poorly understood. Here we present evidence that cell-lineage-specific factors, such as FoxA1, can simultaneously facilitate and restrict key regulated transcription factors, exemplified by the androgen receptor (AR), to act on structurally and functionally distinct classes of enhancer. Consequently, FoxA1 downregulation, an unfavourable prognostic sign in certain advanced prostate tumours, triggers dramatic reprogramming of the hormonal response by causing a massive switch in AR binding to a distinct cohort of pre-established enhancers. These enhancers are functional, as evidenced by the production of enhancer-templated non-coding RNA (eRNA) based on global nuclear run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) analysis, with a unique class apparently requiring no nucleosome remodelling to induce specific enhancer-promoter looping and gene activation. GRO-seq data also suggest that liganded AR induces both transcription initiation and elongation. Together, these findings reveal a large repository of active enhancers that can be dynamically tuned to elicit alternative gene expression programs, which may underlie many sequential gene expression events in development, cell differentiation and disease progression.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3117022/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3117022/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Dong -- Garcia-Bassets, Ivan -- Benner, Chris -- Li, Wenbo -- Su, Xue -- Zhou, Yiming -- Qiu, Jinsong -- Liu, Wen -- Kaikkonen, Minna U -- Ohgi, Kenneth A -- Glass, Christopher K -- Rosenfeld, Michael G -- Fu, Xiang-Dong -- DK01847/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK074868/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK37949/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- GM049369/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HG004659/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- NS34934/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 DK074868/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P01 DK074868-05/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 AG038072/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA097134/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA097134-10/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK018477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK018477-35/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK039949/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK039949-30/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK091183/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM049369/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM049369-17/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004659/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004659-03/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL065445/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL065445-12/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS034934/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS034934-23/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK039949/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK039949-28/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 May 15;474(7351):390-4. doi: 10.1038/nature10006.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0651, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21572438" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Lineage ; Dihydrotestosterone/pharmacology ; Down-Regulation ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/*genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Genome, Human/genetics ; HEK293 Cells ; Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-alpha/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Histones/metabolism ; Humans ; Kallikreins ; Male ; Prostate-Specific Antigen ; Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism/pathology ; RNA, Small Interfering/genetics/metabolism ; RNA, Untranslated/*genetics ; Receptors, Androgen/*metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-16
    Description: Although recent studies have indicated roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in physiological aspects of cell-type determination and tissue homeostasis, their potential involvement in regulated gene transcription programs remains rather poorly understood. The androgen receptor regulates a large repertoire of genes central to the identity and behaviour of prostate cancer cells, and functions in a ligand-independent fashion in many prostate cancers when they become hormone refractory after initial androgen deprivation therapy. Here we report that two lncRNAs highly overexpressed in aggressive prostate cancer, PRNCR1 (also known as PCAT8) and PCGEM1, bind successively to the androgen receptor and strongly enhance both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent androgen-receptor-mediated gene activation programs and proliferation in prostate cancer cells. Binding of PRNCR1 to the carboxy-terminally acetylated androgen receptor on enhancers and its association with DOT1L appear to be required for recruitment of the second lncRNA, PCGEM1, to the androgen receptor amino terminus that is methylated by DOT1L. Unexpectedly, recognition of specific protein marks by PCGEM1-recruited pygopus 2 PHD domain enhances selective looping of androgen-receptor-bound enhancers to target gene promoters in these cells. In 'resistant' prostate cancer cells, these overexpressed lncRNAs can interact with, and are required for, the robust activation of both truncated and full-length androgen receptor, causing ligand-independent activation of the androgen receptor transcriptional program and cell proliferation. Conditionally expressed short hairpin RNA targeting these lncRNAs in castration-resistant prostate cancer cell lines strongly suppressed tumour xenograft growth in vivo. Together, these results indicate that these overexpressed lncRNAs can potentially serve as a required component of castration-resistance in prostatic tumours.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4034386/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4034386/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yang, Liuqing -- Lin, Chunru -- Jin, Chunyu -- Yang, Joy C -- Tanasa, Bogdan -- Li, Wenbo -- Merkurjev, Daria -- Ohgi, Kenneth A -- Meng, Da -- Zhang, Jie -- Evans, Christopher P -- Rosenfeld, Michael G -- 1K99DK094981-01/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- 4R00CA166527-02/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA173903/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DK039949/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK18477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- NS034934/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA023100/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R00 CA166527/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R00 DK094981/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- T32 DK007541/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Aug 29;500(7464):598-602. doi: 10.1038/nature12451. Epub 2013 Aug 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23945587" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Castration ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Proliferation ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Nude ; Neoplasm Transplantation ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics/pathology ; RNA, Long Noncoding/*genetics ; Receptors, Androgen/*metabolism ; Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Transcriptional Activation/*genetics ; Up-Regulation/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-08-15
    Description: Homeodomain proteins, described 30 years ago, exert essential roles in development as regulators of target gene expression; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying transcriptional activity of homeodomain factors remain poorly understood. Here investigation of a developmentally required POU-homeodomain transcription factor, Pit1 (also known as Pou1f1), has revealed that, unexpectedly, binding of Pit1-occupied enhancers to a nuclear matrin-3-rich network/architecture is a key event in effective activation of the Pit1-regulated enhancer/coding gene transcriptional program. Pit1 association with Satb1 (ref. 8) and beta-catenin is required for this tethering event. A naturally occurring, dominant negative, point mutation in human PIT1(R271W), causing combined pituitary hormone deficiency, results in loss of Pit1 association with beta-catenin and Satb1 and therefore the matrin-3-rich network, blocking Pit1-dependent enhancer/coding target gene activation. This defective activation can be rescued by artificial tethering of the mutant R271W Pit1 protein to the matrin-3 network, bypassing the pre-requisite association with beta-catenin and Satb1 otherwise required. The matrin-3 network-tethered R271W Pit1 mutant, but not the untethered protein, restores Pit1-dependent activation of the enhancers and recruitment of co-activators, exemplified by p300, causing both enhancer RNA transcription and target gene activation. These studies have thus revealed an unanticipated homeodomain factor/beta-catenin/Satb1-dependent localization of target gene regulatory enhancer regions to a subnuclear architectural structure that serves as an underlying mechanism by which an enhancer-bound homeodomain factor effectively activates developmental gene transcriptional programs.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4358797/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4358797/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Skowronska-Krawczyk, Dorota -- Ma, Qi -- Schwartz, Michal -- Scully, Kathleen -- Li, Wenbo -- Liu, Zhijie -- Taylor, Havilah -- Tollkuhn, Jessica -- Ohgi, Kenneth A -- Notani, Dimple -- Kohwi, Yoshinori -- Kohwi-Shigematsu, Terumi -- Rosenfeld, Michael G -- CA173903/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DK018477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK039949/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- HL065445/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- NS034934/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 DK074868/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 NS047101/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA173903/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK018477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL065445/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS034934/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS048243/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R37 CA039681/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK039949/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Oct 9;514(7521):257-61. doi: 10.1038/nature13573. Epub 2014 Aug 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; 1] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2] The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, 5290002, Israel. ; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25119036" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cells, Cultured ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/*genetics ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Homeodomain Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Humans ; Matrix Attachment Region Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Mice ; Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins/*metabolism ; Pituitary Gland/embryology/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; RNA-Binding Proteins/*metabolism ; Transcription Factor Pit-1/genetics/metabolism ; *Transcription, Genetic/genetics ; beta Catenin/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] For the plasmids used in the present experiments, the structural part of the growth hormone (GH) gene was fused to the promoter region of the mouse metallothionein-I (MT-I) gene (Fig. la; refs 12, 13), and it was anticipated that the fusion gene would be expressed in tissues in which endogenous ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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