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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Over 90% of the world's population is persistently infected with Epstein-Barr virus. While EBV does not cause disease in most individuals, it is the common cause of acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM) and has been associated with several cancers and autoimmune diseases, highlighting a need for a preventive vaccine. At present, very few primary, circulating EBV genomes have been sequenced directly from infected individuals. While low levels of diversity and low viral evolution rates have been predicted for double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses, recent studies have demonstrated appreciable diversity in common dsDNA pathogens (e.g., cytomegalovirus). Here, we report 40 full-length EBV genome sequences obtained from matched oral wash and B cell fractions from a cohort of 10 AIM patients. Both intra- and interpatient diversity were observed across the length of the entire viral genome. Diversity was most pronounced in viral genes required for establishing latent infection and persistence, with appreciable levels of diversity also detected in structural genes, including envelope glycoproteins. Interestingly, intrapatient diversity declined significantly over time ( P 〈 0.01), and this was particularly evident on comparison of viral genomes sequenced from B cell fractions in early primary infection and convalescence ( P 〈 0.001). B cell-associated viral genomes were observed to converge, becoming nearly identical to the B95.8 reference genome over time (Spearman rank-order correlation test; r = –0.5589, P = 0.0264). The reduction in diversity was most marked in the EBV latency genes. In summary, our data suggest independent convergence of diverse viral genome sequences toward a reference-like strain within a relatively short period following primary EBV infection. IMPORTANCE Identification of viral proteins with low variability and high immunogenicity is important for the development of a protective vaccine. Knowledge of genome diversity within circulating viral populations is a key step in this process, as is the expansion of intrahost genomic variation during infection. We report full-length EBV genomes sequenced from the blood and oral wash of 10 individuals early in primary infection and during convalescence. Our data demonstrate considerable diversity within the pool of circulating EBV strains, as well as within individual patients. Overall viral diversity decreased from early to persistent infection, particularly in latently infected B cells, which serve as the viral reservoir. Reduction in B cell-associated viral genome diversity coincided with a convergence toward a reference-like EBV genotype. Greater convergence positively correlated with time after infection, suggesting that the reference-like genome is the result of selection.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-07-17
    Description: Purpose: PR1 is a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 nonameric peptide derived from neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase 3 (P3). We have previously shown that PR1 is cross-presented by solid tumors, leukemia, and antigen-presenting cells, including B cells. We have also shown that cross-presentation of PR1 by solid tumors renders them susceptible to killing by PR1-targeting immunotherapies. As multiple myeloma is derived from B cells, we investigated whether multiple myeloma is also capable of PR1 cross-presentation and subsequently capable of being targeted by using PR1 immunotherapies. Experimental Design: We tested whether multiple myeloma is capable of cross-presenting PR1 and subsequently becomes susceptible to PR1-targeting immunotherapies, using multiple myeloma cell lines, a xenograft mouse model, and primary multiple myeloma patient samples. Results: Here we show that multiple myeloma cells lack endogenous NE and P3, are able to take up exogenous NE and P3, and cross-present PR1 on HLA-A2. Cross-presentation by multiple myeloma utilizes the conventional antigen processing machinery, including the proteasome and Golgi, and is not affected by immunomodulating drugs (IMiD). Following PR1 cross-presentation, we are able to target multiple myeloma with PR1-CTL and anti-PR1/HLA-A2 antibody both in vitro and in vivo . Conclusions: Collectively, our data demonstrate that PR1 is a novel tumor-associated antigen target in multiple myeloma and that multiple myeloma is susceptible to immunotherapies that target cross-presented antigens. Clin Cancer Res; 24(14); 3386–96. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-11-02
    Description: Ac-hE18A-NH 2 is a dual-domain apoE mimetic peptide that possesses the putative receptor binding domain from apoE (LRKLRKRLLR, denoted hE; residues 141–150) covalently attached to lipid-associating peptide 18A. Like apoE, Ac-hE18A-NH 2 reduces plasma cholesterol in animal models and exhibits anti-inflammatory properties independent of its cholesterol-reducing effect. Ac-hE18A-NH 2 has already undergone phase I clinical trials as a lipid-lowering agent. To explore the therapeutic potential more, we designed and synthesized new analogues by linking a-aminohexanoic acid, octanoic acid, or myristic acid to LRRLRRRLLR-18A-NH 2 ([R]hE18A-NH 2 ) and examined the cholesterol-lowering potency in animals. The modified peptides effectively reduced plasma cholesterol in apoE-null mice fed standard chow or a Western diet; the myristyl analogue was the most effective. A single administration of the myristyl analogue reduced plasma total and LDL cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner in hypercholesterolemic cynomolgus macaques for up to 1 week despite the continuation of a cholesterol-supplemented diet. The myristyl peptide (7.4 mg/kg) reduced total and LDL cholesterol at 24 h by 64% and 74%, respectively; plasma HDL levels were modestly reduced and returned to baseline by day 7. These new analogues should exhibit enhanced potency at lower doses than Ac-hE18A-NH 2 , which may make them attractive therapeutic candidates for clinical trials.
    Print ISSN: 0022-2275
    Electronic ISSN: 1539-7262
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-10-14
    Description: The comparison of related genomes has emerged as a powerful lens for genome interpretation. Here we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of 29 eutherian genomes. We confirm that at least 5.5% of the human genome has undergone purifying selection, and locate constrained elements covering approximately 4.2% of the genome. We use evolutionary signatures and comparisons with experimental data sets to suggest candidate functions for approximately 60% of constrained bases. These elements reveal a small number of new coding exons, candidate stop codon readthrough events and over 10,000 regions of overlapping synonymous constraint within protein-coding exons. We find 220 candidate RNA structural families, and nearly a million elements overlapping potential promoter, enhancer and insulator regions. We report specific amino acid residues that have undergone positive selection, 280,000 non-coding elements exapted from mobile elements and more than 1,000 primate- and human-accelerated elements. Overlap with disease-associated variants indicates that our findings will be relevant for studies of human biology, health and disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3207357/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3207357/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin -- Garber, Manuel -- Zuk, Or -- Lin, Michael F -- Parker, Brian J -- Washietl, Stefan -- Kheradpour, Pouya -- Ernst, Jason -- Jordan, Gregory -- Mauceli, Evan -- Ward, Lucas D -- Lowe, Craig B -- Holloway, Alisha K -- Clamp, Michele -- Gnerre, Sante -- Alfoldi, Jessica -- Beal, Kathryn -- Chang, Jean -- Clawson, Hiram -- Cuff, James -- Di Palma, Federica -- Fitzgerald, Stephen -- Flicek, Paul -- Guttman, Mitchell -- Hubisz, Melissa J -- Jaffe, David B -- Jungreis, Irwin -- Kent, W James -- Kostka, Dennis -- Lara, Marcia -- Martins, Andre L -- Massingham, Tim -- Moltke, Ida -- Raney, Brian J -- Rasmussen, Matthew D -- Robinson, Jim -- Stark, Alexander -- Vilella, Albert J -- Wen, Jiayu -- Xie, Xiaohui -- Zody, Michael C -- Broad Institute Sequencing Platform and Whole Genome Assembly Team -- Baldwin, Jen -- Bloom, Toby -- Chin, Chee Whye -- Heiman, Dave -- Nicol, Robert -- Nusbaum, Chad -- Young, Sarah -- Wilkinson, Jane -- Worley, Kim C -- Kovar, Christie L -- Muzny, Donna M -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center Sequencing Team -- Cree, Andrew -- Dihn, Huyen H -- Fowler, Gerald -- Jhangiani, Shalili -- Joshi, Vandita -- Lee, Sandra -- Lewis, Lora R -- Nazareth, Lynne V -- Okwuonu, Geoffrey -- Santibanez, Jireh -- Warren, Wesley C -- Mardis, Elaine R -- Weinstock, George M -- Wilson, Richard K -- Genome Institute at Washington University -- Delehaunty, Kim -- Dooling, David -- Fronik, Catrina -- Fulton, Lucinda -- Fulton, Bob -- Graves, Tina -- Minx, Patrick -- Sodergren, Erica -- Birney, Ewan -- Margulies, Elliott H -- Herrero, Javier -- Green, Eric D -- Haussler, David -- Siepel, Adam -- Goldman, Nick -- Pollard, Katherine S -- Pedersen, Jakob S -- Lander, Eric S -- Kellis, Manolis -- 095908/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- GM82901/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG003474/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004037/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003067/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003067-09/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Oct 12;478(7370):476-82. doi: 10.1038/nature10530.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. kersli@broadinstitute.org〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21993624" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Disease ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Exons/genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genomics ; Health ; Humans ; Mammals/*genetics ; Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Phylogeny ; RNA/classification/genetics ; Selection, Genetic/genetics ; Sequence Alignment ; Sequence Analysis, DNA
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-30
    Description: Although thousands of large intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been identified in mammals, few have been functionally characterized, leading to debate about their biological role. To address this, we performed loss-of-function studies on most lincRNAs expressed in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and characterized the effects on gene expression. Here we show that knockdown of lincRNAs has major consequences on gene expression patterns, comparable to knockdown of well-known ES cell regulators. Notably, lincRNAs primarily affect gene expression in trans. Knockdown of dozens of lincRNAs causes either exit from the pluripotent state or upregulation of lineage commitment programs. We integrate lincRNAs into the molecular circuitry of ES cells and show that lincRNA genes are regulated by key transcription factors and that lincRNA transcripts bind to multiple chromatin regulatory proteins to affect shared gene expression programs. Together, the results demonstrate that lincRNAs have key roles in the circuitry controlling ES cell state.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3175327/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3175327/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Guttman, Mitchell -- Donaghey, Julie -- Carey, Bryce W -- Garber, Manuel -- Grenier, Jennifer K -- Munson, Glen -- Young, Geneva -- Lucas, Anne Bergstrom -- Ach, Robert -- Bruhn, Laurakay -- Yang, Xiaoping -- Amit, Ido -- Meissner, Alexander -- Regev, Aviv -- Rinn, John L -- Root, David E -- Lander, Eric S -- U54 HG003067/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003067-09/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Aug 28;477(7364):295-300. doi: 10.1038/nature10398.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. mguttman@mit.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21874018" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Differentiation/*genetics ; Cell Lineage/genetics ; Chromatin/genetics/metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation/genetics ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Mice ; Pluripotent Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Protein Binding ; RNA, Untranslated/*genetics/*metabolism ; Transcription Factors/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: Several recent studies link parental environments to phenotypes in subsequent generations. In this work, we investigate the mechanism by which paternal diet affects offspring metabolism. Protein restriction in mice affects small RNA (sRNA) levels in mature sperm, with decreased let-7 levels and increased amounts of 5' fragments of glycine transfer RNAs (tRNAs). In testicular sperm, tRNA fragments are scarce but increase in abundance as sperm mature in the epididymis. Epididymosomes (vesicles that fuse with sperm during epididymal transit) carry RNA payloads matching those of mature sperm and can deliver RNAs to immature sperm in vitro. Functionally, tRNA-glycine-GCC fragments repress genes associated with the endogenous retroelement MERVL, in both embryonic stem cells and embryos. Our results shed light on sRNA biogenesis and its dietary regulation during posttesticular sperm maturation, and they also link tRNA fragments to regulation of endogenous retroelements active in the preimplantation embryo.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sharma, Upasna -- Conine, Colin C -- Shea, Jeremy M -- Boskovic, Ana -- Derr, Alan G -- Bing, Xin Y -- Belleannee, Clemence -- Kucukural, Alper -- Serra, Ryan W -- Sun, Fengyun -- Song, Lina -- Carone, Benjamin R -- Ricci, Emiliano P -- Li, Xin Z -- Fauquier, Lucas -- Moore, Melissa J -- Sullivan, Robert -- Mello, Craig C -- Garber, Manuel -- Rando, Oliver J -- DP1ES025458/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/ -- R01HD080224/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000161/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR001453/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 22;351(6271):391-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aad6780. Epub 2015 Dec 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. Program in Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction, Universite Laval, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec Research Center, Quebec City, Quebec G1V 4G2, Canada. ; RNAi Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. RNAi Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. RNAi Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. RNAi Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. oliver.rando@umassmed.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721685" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Blastocyst/metabolism ; Diet, Protein-Restricted ; Epididymis/metabolism ; *Fertilization ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Male ; Mice ; MicroRNAs/metabolism ; RNA, Transfer, Gly/*metabolism/*physiology ; Retroelements/genetics ; *Sperm Maturation ; Spermatozoa/*metabolism ; Testis/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0168-9002
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0300-9084
    Keywords: N-t sequence ; T thermophilus ; ThrRS ; protein purification ; tRNA aminoacylation ; tRNA mischarging
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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