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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-11-15
    Description: So far, two genes associated with familial melanoma have been identified, accounting for a minority of genetic risk in families. Mutations in CDKN2A account for approximately 40% of familial cases, and predisposing mutations in CDK4 have been reported in a very small number of melanoma kindreds. Here we report the whole-genome sequencing of probands from several melanoma families, which we performed in order to identify other genes associated with familial melanoma. We identify one individual carrying a novel germline variant (coding DNA sequence c.G1075A; protein sequence p.E318K; rs149617956) in the melanoma-lineage-specific oncogene microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Although the variant co-segregated with melanoma in some but not all cases in the family, linkage analysis of 31 families subsequently identified to carry the variant generated a log of odds (lod) score of 2.7 under a dominant model, indicating E318K as a possible intermediate risk variant. Consistent with this, the E318K variant was significantly associated with melanoma in a large Australian case-control sample. Likewise, it was similarly associated in an independent case-control sample from the United Kingdom. In the Australian sample, the variant allele was significantly over-represented in cases with a family history of melanoma, multiple primary melanomas, or both. The variant allele was also associated with increased naevus count and non-blue eye colour. Functional analysis of E318K showed that MITF encoded by the variant allele had impaired sumoylation and differentially regulated several MITF targets. These data indicate that MITF is a melanoma-predisposition gene and highlight the utility of whole-genome sequencing to identify novel rare variants associated with disease susceptibility.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3266855/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3266855/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yokoyama, Satoru -- Woods, Susan L -- Boyle, Glen M -- Aoude, Lauren G -- MacGregor, Stuart -- Zismann, Victoria -- Gartside, Michael -- Cust, Anne E -- Haq, Rizwan -- Harland, Mark -- Taylor, John C -- Duffy, David L -- Holohan, Kelly -- Dutton-Regester, Ken -- Palmer, Jane M -- Bonazzi, Vanessa -- Stark, Mitchell S -- Symmons, Judith -- Law, Matthew H -- Schmidt, Christopher -- Lanagan, Cathy -- O'Connor, Linda -- Holland, Elizabeth A -- Schmid, Helen -- Maskiell, Judith A -- Jetann, Jodie -- Ferguson, Megan -- Jenkins, Mark A -- Kefford, Richard F -- Giles, Graham G -- Armstrong, Bruce K -- Aitken, Joanne F -- Hopper, John L -- Whiteman, David C -- Pharoah, Paul D -- Easton, Douglas F -- Dunning, Alison M -- Newton-Bishop, Julia A -- Montgomery, Grant W -- Martin, Nicholas G -- Mann, Graham J -- Bishop, D Timothy -- Tsao, Hensin -- Trent, Jeffrey M -- Fisher, David E -- Hayward, Nicholas K -- Brown, Kevin M -- 10118/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- 10589/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- AR043369-14/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- C490/A11021/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- C588/A10589/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- C588/A4994/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- C8197/A10123/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- C8216/A6129/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- CA88363/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- K24CA149202/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50CA9368/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR043369/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA-83115-01A2/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA088363/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA088363-09/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA83115/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Nov 13;480(7375):99-103. doi: 10.1038/nature10630.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Dermatology, Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts 02114, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22080950" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; *Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Humans ; Male ; Melanoma/*genetics ; Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor/*genetics ; Middle Aged ; *Mutation ; Sumoylation/genetics ; Young Adult
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract High levels of immunity toAnaplasma marginale were induced in cattle either by vaccination using sonically disruptedA. marginale-infected erythrocytes or by repeated infection with different strains of the rickettsia. In both instances, high levels of anti-A. marginale antibody were detected in the sera of the immune cattle by immunoblotting. Serum from one animal that had been made immune by repeated infection was transferred intravenously toA. marginale-susceptible calves (three non-splenectomised and two splenectomised) undergoing initialA. marginale infection at serum doses of 2–10 ml/kg. Neither the course nor the outcome of infection as indicated by the parasite levels attained or the level of anaemia induced was altered in the calves that received the immune serum relative to the course or outcome of infection in control calves (two non-splenectomised and two splenectomised) that received serum from anA. marginale-naive donor animal. In a similar experiment, a pool of sera from four steers that had been vaccinated with sonically disruptedA. marginale initial bodies was transfused into two intactA. marginale-susceptible calves during the early stage ofA. marginale infection at a dose of 10 ml/kg. No difference was observed in the course or outcome of infection in these calves relative to the course or outcome of infection in the two non-splenectomised calves that were transfused with non-immune serum. The failure of serum obtained from animals that had been made immune toA. marginale either by infection or by vaccination with disrupted initial bodies to confer any protection against infection following its transfer into splenectomised or non-splenectomised naive calves indicates that antibody per se is not a significant factor in immunity to this parasite.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    BJOG 82 (1975), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The value of a single HPL, estimation in serum was assessed in 337 patients with a threatened abortion between 7 and 27 weeks gestation. Serial assays were subsequently performed on 75 of these. A scheme is proposed whereby an HPL result can be given a “favourable”, “equivocal” or “unfavourable” prognosis according to its level. Using this scheme a correct prognosis was obtained in 86 per cent of cases between 9 and 19 weeks gestation while an incorrect prognosis was obtained in 3 per cent of cases. There appeared to be little prognostic value after 19 weeks gestation though prior to 9 weeks the results were sufficiently promising to suggest that a more sensitive assay would be useful.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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