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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-07-23
    Description: G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal primarily through G proteins or arrestins. Arrestin binding to GPCRs blocks G protein interaction and redirects signalling to numerous G-protein-independent pathways. Here we report the crystal structure of a constitutively active form of human rhodopsin bound to a pre-activated form of the mouse visual arrestin, determined by serial femtosecond X-ray laser crystallography. Together with extensive biochemical and mutagenesis data, the structure reveals an overall architecture of the rhodopsin-arrestin assembly in which rhodopsin uses distinct structural elements, including transmembrane helix 7 and helix 8, to recruit arrestin. Correspondingly, arrestin adopts the pre-activated conformation, with a approximately 20 degrees rotation between the amino and carboxy domains, which opens up a cleft in arrestin to accommodate a short helix formed by the second intracellular loop of rhodopsin. This structure provides a basis for understanding GPCR-mediated arrestin-biased signalling and demonstrates the power of X-ray lasers for advancing the frontiers of structural biology.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4521999/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4521999/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kang, Yanyong -- Zhou, X Edward -- Gao, Xiang -- He, Yuanzheng -- Liu, Wei -- Ishchenko, Andrii -- Barty, Anton -- White, Thomas A -- Yefanov, Oleksandr -- Han, Gye Won -- Xu, Qingping -- de Waal, Parker W -- Ke, Jiyuan -- Tan, M H Eileen -- Zhang, Chenghai -- Moeller, Arne -- West, Graham M -- Pascal, Bruce D -- Van Eps, Ned -- Caro, Lydia N -- Vishnivetskiy, Sergey A -- Lee, Regina J -- Suino-Powell, Kelly M -- Gu, Xin -- Pal, Kuntal -- Ma, Jinming -- Zhi, Xiaoyong -- Boutet, Sebastien -- Williams, Garth J -- Messerschmidt, Marc -- Gati, Cornelius -- Zatsepin, Nadia A -- Wang, Dingjie -- James, Daniel -- Basu, Shibom -- Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi -- Conrad, Chelsie E -- Coe, Jesse -- Liu, Haiguang -- Lisova, Stella -- Kupitz, Christopher -- Grotjohann, Ingo -- Fromme, Raimund -- Jiang, Yi -- Tan, Minjia -- Yang, Huaiyu -- Li, Jun -- Wang, Meitian -- Zheng, Zhong -- Li, Dianfan -- Howe, Nicole -- Zhao, Yingming -- Standfuss, Jorg -- Diederichs, Kay -- Dong, Yuhui -- Potter, Clinton S -- Carragher, Bridget -- Caffrey, Martin -- Jiang, Hualiang -- Chapman, Henry N -- Spence, John C H -- Fromme, Petra -- Weierstall, Uwe -- Ernst, Oliver P -- Katritch, Vsevolod -- Gurevich, Vsevolod V -- Griffin, Patrick R -- Hubbell, Wayne L -- Stevens, Raymond C -- Cherezov, Vadim -- Melcher, Karsten -- Xu, H Eric -- DK071662/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- EY005216/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- EY011500/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- GM073197/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM077561/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM095583/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM097463/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM102545/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM103310/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM104212/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM108635/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P30EY000331/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- P41 GM103310/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41GM103393/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41RR001209/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM073197/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM073210/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK066202/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK071662/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY011500/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM087413/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM109955/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- S10 RR027270/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094586/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094599/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094618/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jul 30;523(7562):561-7. doi: 10.1038/nature14656. Epub 2015 Jul 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Structural Sciences, Center for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49503, USA. ; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Applied Structural Discovery, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, Bridge Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA. ; Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg, Germany. ; Joint Center for Structural Genomics, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA. ; 1] Laboratory of Structural Sciences, Center for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49503, USA [2] Department of Obstetrics &Gynecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. ; The National Resource for Automated Molecular Microscopy, New York Structural Biology Center, New York, New York 10027, USA. ; Department of Molecular Therapeutics, The Scripps Research Institute, Scripps Florida, Jupiter, Florida 33458, USA. ; Jules Stein Eye Institute and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA. ; 1] Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA [2] BioXFEL, NSF Science and Technology Center, 700 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA. ; 1] Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Applied Structural Discovery, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604, USA [2] Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA. ; 1] Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Applied Structural Discovery, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604, USA [2] Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Haidian District, Beijing 10084, China. ; 1] Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Applied Structural Discovery, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604, USA [2] Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211, USA. ; State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China. ; Department of Obstetrics &Gynecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. ; Swiss Light Source at Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland. ; Department of Biological Sciences, Bridge Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA. ; School of Medicine and School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland. ; 1] BioXFEL, NSF Science and Technology Center, 700 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA [2] Ben May Department for Cancer Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Laboratory of Biomolecular Research at Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland. ; Department of Biology, Universitat Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz, Germany. ; Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. ; 1] Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg, Germany [2] Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, 22761 Hamburg, Germany. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada [2] Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; 1] Department of Chemistry, Bridge Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA [2] Department of Biological Sciences, Bridge Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA [3] iHuman Institute, ShanghaiTech University, 2F Building 6, 99 Haike Road, Pudong New District, Shanghai 201210, China. ; 1] Laboratory of Structural Sciences, Center for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49503, USA [2] VARI-SIMM Center, Center for Structure and Function of Drug Targets, CAS-Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26200343" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Arrestin/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Disulfides/chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Lasers ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Multiprotein Complexes/biosynthesis/chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Reproducibility of Results ; Rhodopsin/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; X-Rays
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-01-26
    Description: Caspases are either apoptotic or inflammatory. Among inflammatory caspases, caspase-1 and -11 trigger pyroptosis, a form of programmed cell death. Whereas both can be detrimental in inflammatory disease, only caspase-1 has an established protective role during infection. Here, we report that caspase-11 is required for innate immunity to cytosolic, but not vacuolar, bacteria. Although Salmonella typhimurium and Legionella pneumophila normally reside in the vacuole, specific mutants (sifA and sdhA, respectively) aberrantly enter the cytosol. These mutants triggered caspase-11, which enhanced clearance of S. typhimurium sifA in vivo. This response did not require NLRP3, NLRC4, or ASC inflammasome pathways. Burkholderia species that naturally invade the cytosol also triggered caspase-11, which protected mice from lethal challenge with B. thailandensis and B. pseudomallei. Thus, caspase-11 is critical for surviving exposure to ubiquitous environmental pathogens.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3697099/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3697099/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Aachoui, Youssef -- Leaf, Irina A -- Hagar, Jon A -- Fontana, Mary F -- Campos, Cristine G -- Zak, Daniel E -- Tan, Michael H -- Cotter, Peggy A -- Vance, Russell E -- Aderem, Alan -- Miao, Edward A -- AI057141/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI063302/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI065359/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI075039/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI080749/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI097518/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI063302/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA016086/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI075039/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI080749/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI097518/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI100627/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI057141/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI065359/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Feb 22;339(6122):975-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1230751. Epub 2013 Jan 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23348507" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Burkholderia/pathogenicity/physiology ; Burkholderia Infections/enzymology/immunology/metabolism ; Burkholderia pseudomallei/pathogenicity/physiology ; Caspases/*metabolism ; *Cell Death ; Cytosol/*microbiology ; Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/enzymology/*immunology/microbiology ; Immunity, Innate ; Inflammasomes/metabolism ; Macrophages/immunology/*microbiology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Phagosomes/microbiology ; Salmonella Infections, Animal/enzymology/immunology/microbiology ; Salmonella typhimurium/pathogenicity/physiology ; Vacuoles/*microbiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-03-17
    Description: Li et al. (Research Articles, 1 July 2011, p. 53; published online 19 May 2011) reported widespread differences between the RNA and DNA sequences of the same human cells, including all 12 possible mismatch types. Before accepting such a fundamental claim, a deeper analysis of the sequencing data is required to discern true differences between RNA and DNA from potential artifacts.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lin, Wei -- Piskol, Robert -- Tan, Meng How -- Li, Jin Billy -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Mar 16;335(6074):1302; author reply 1302. doi: 10.1126/science.1210624.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22422964" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: DNA/*genetics ; *Genetic Variation ; *Genome, Human ; Humans ; RNA, Messenger/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-11-26
    Description: Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3584687/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3584687/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Soon, Fen-Fen -- Ng, Ley-Moy -- Zhou, X Edward -- West, Graham M -- Kovach, Amanda -- Tan, M H Eileen -- Suino-Powell, Kelly M -- He, Yuanzheng -- Xu, Yong -- Chalmers, Michael J -- Brunzelle, Joseph S -- Zhang, Huiming -- Yang, Huaiyu -- Jiang, Hualiang -- Li, Jun -- Yong, Eu-Leong -- Cutler, Sean -- Zhu, Jian-Kang -- Griffin, Patrick R -- Melcher, Karsten -- Xu, H Eric -- GM084041/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM059138/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- S10 RR027270/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jan 6;335(6064):85-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1215106. Epub 2011 Nov 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Structural Sciences, Van Andel Research Institute, 333 Bostwick Avenue NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22116026" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Abscisic Acid/chemistry/*metabolism ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Arabidopsis/chemistry/*metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Catalytic Domain ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Enzyme Activation ; Models, Molecular ; *Molecular Mimicry ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phosphoprotein Phosphatases/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Signal Transduction
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Cyclosporin A ; Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; immunotherapy ; C-peptide ; islet function ; remission of Type 1 diabetes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the Canadian/European randomized controlled study on cyclosporin A (CsA) in recent onset Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes, treatment with the immunosuppressive drug had increased and maintained Beta-cell function and clinical remission during the first 12 months. Following discontinuation of the study drug and double-blinding after a mean of 13.8 months former CsA patients doubled the daily insulin dose within 6 months reaching the level of former placebo patients. The difference in Beta-cell function between the two groups was also lost. Metabolic control (HbA1c) was transiently worse in the former CsA group. Adverse effects of cyclosporin A on systolic blood pressure, haemoglobin levels, serum potassium and creatinine levels also remitted during that time. We conclude that treatment with cyclosporin A for a mean of 13.8 months had no long-lasting effect on the course of Type 1 diabetes persisting beyond drug discontinuation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: In this study, high-quality ZnO:Al (ZAO) films were prepared by using dc reaction magnetron sputtering technology. The effect of Al doped in ZnO films on electrical and optical properties and its scattering mechanism were discussed in detail. The results showed that Al2O3 could be effectively removed by controlling oxygen flow and Al-doped concentration during deposition of ZnO:Al films. Zn, Al, and oxygen elements were well distributed through the films. For highly degenerated ZnO:Al semiconductor thin films, it was revealed that ionized impurity scattering dominated the Hall mobility of the films in the low-temperature range; while the lattice vibration became a major scattering mechanism in the high-temperature range. The grain-boundary scattering only played a major role in the ZAO films with small grain size (as compared to the electron mean-free path). The photoelectric properties of ZAO films showed that the lower resistivity (∼5×10−4 Ω cm) was obtained, and transmittance in the visible range and reflectance in the IR region were above 80% and 60%, respectively. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background : Regular surveillance is recommended for patients with chronic hepatitis B, to select candidates for anti-viral therapy and detect early complications. However, factors that determine compliance are not well studied.Aim : To determine the utility of the Health Belief Model in explaining non-compliance, among a group of chronic hepatitis B patients for screening.Methods : A total of 192 chronic hepatitis B patients who responded to advertisement for free screening took part in a telephonic interview study. Subjects were asked about the five constructs of the Health Belief Model, and factors associated with recent screening were analysed.Results : The mean age of the subjects was 42.1 ± 0.7 years; 77% white male, and 97% Chinese. About 108 patients (56%) had recent screening. At multivariate analysis, only the ability to remember date of follow-up (OR: 4.37; 95% CI: 2.07–9.17) and the perception of having to wait a long time for venepuncture (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.19–0.79) were significantly associated with recent screening.Conclusion : Future public health measures should include improving the logistics of follow-up procedures and providing reminders for screening to improve compliance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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