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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-11-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Schultz, Matthew D -- He, Yupeng -- Whitaker, John W -- Hariharan, Manoj -- Mukamel, Eran A -- Leung, Danny -- Rajagopal, Nisha -- Nery, Joseph R -- Urich, Mark A -- Chen, Huaming -- Lin, Shin -- Lin, Yiing -- Jung, Inkyung -- Schmitt, Anthony D -- Selvaraj, Siddarth -- Ren, Bing -- Sejnowski, Terrence J -- Wang, Wei -- Ecker, Joseph R -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):242. doi: 10.1038/nature16179. Epub 2015 Nov 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26605523" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-09-08
    Description: Transcription factors bind in a combinatorial fashion to specify the on-and-off states of genes; the ensemble of these binding events forms a regulatory network, constituting the wiring diagram for a cell. To examine the principles of the human transcriptional regulatory network, we determined the genomic binding information of 119 transcription-related factors in over 450 distinct experiments. We found the combinatorial, co-association of transcription factors to be highly context specific: distinct combinations of factors bind at specific genomic locations. In particular, there are significant differences in the binding proximal and distal to genes. We organized all the transcription factor binding into a hierarchy and integrated it with other genomic information (for example, microRNA regulation), forming a dense meta-network. Factors at different levels have different properties; for instance, top-level transcription factors more strongly influence expression and middle-level ones co-regulate targets to mitigate information-flow bottlenecks. Moreover, these co-regulations give rise to many enriched network motifs (for example, noise-buffering feed-forward loops). Finally, more connected network components are under stronger selection and exhibit a greater degree of allele-specific activity (that is, differential binding to the two parental alleles). The regulatory information obtained in this study will be crucial for interpreting personal genome sequences and understanding basic principles of human biology and disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4154057/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4154057/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gerstein, Mark B -- Kundaje, Anshul -- Hariharan, Manoj -- Landt, Stephen G -- Yan, Koon-Kiu -- Cheng, Chao -- Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine -- Khurana, Ekta -- Rozowsky, Joel -- Alexander, Roger -- Min, Renqiang -- Alves, Pedro -- Abyzov, Alexej -- Addleman, Nick -- Bhardwaj, Nitin -- Boyle, Alan P -- Cayting, Philip -- Charos, Alexandra -- Chen, David Z -- Cheng, Yong -- Clarke, Declan -- Eastman, Catharine -- Euskirchen, Ghia -- Frietze, Seth -- Fu, Yao -- Gertz, Jason -- Grubert, Fabian -- Harmanci, Arif -- Jain, Preti -- Kasowski, Maya -- Lacroute, Phil -- Leng, Jing -- Lian, Jin -- Monahan, Hannah -- O'Geen, Henriette -- Ouyang, Zhengqing -- Partridge, E Christopher -- Patacsil, Dorrelyn -- Pauli, Florencia -- Raha, Debasish -- Ramirez, Lucia -- Reddy, Timothy E -- Reed, Brian -- Shi, Minyi -- Slifer, Teri -- Wang, Jing -- Wu, Linfeng -- Yang, Xinqiong -- Yip, Kevin Y -- Zilberman-Schapira, Gili -- Batzoglou, Serafim -- Sidow, Arend -- Farnham, Peggy J -- Myers, Richard M -- Weissman, Sherman M -- Snyder, Michael -- T32 GM007205/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32GM008283-24/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG004695/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG004558/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Sep 6;489(7414):91-100. doi: 10.1038/nature11245.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Program in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. mark.gerstein@yale.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22955619" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Cell Line ; DNA/*genetics ; *Encyclopedias as Topic ; GATA1 Transcription Factor/metabolism ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Regulatory Networks/*genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genomics ; Humans ; K562 Cells ; *Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Organ Specificity ; Phosphorylation/genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Protein Interaction Maps ; RNA, Untranslated/genetics/metabolism ; Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid/*genetics ; Selection, Genetic/genetics ; Transcription Factors/*metabolism ; Transcription Initiation Site
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-07-11
    Description: Human pluripotent stem cells hold potential for regenerative medicine, but available cell types have significant limitations. Although embryonic stem cells (ES cells) from in vitro fertilized embryos (IVF ES cells) represent the 'gold standard', they are allogeneic to patients. Autologous induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) are prone to epigenetic and transcriptional aberrations. To determine whether such abnormalities are intrinsic to somatic cell reprogramming or secondary to the reprogramming method, genetically matched sets of human IVF ES cells, iPS cells and nuclear transfer ES cells (NT ES cells) derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) were subjected to genome-wide analyses. Both NT ES cells and iPS cells derived from the same somatic cells contained comparable numbers of de novo copy number variations. In contrast, DNA methylation and transcriptome profiles of NT ES cells corresponded closely to those of IVF ES cells, whereas iPS cells differed and retained residual DNA methylation patterns typical of parental somatic cells. Thus, human somatic cells can be faithfully reprogrammed to pluripotency by SCNT and are therefore ideal for cell replacement therapies.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ma, Hong -- Morey, Robert -- O'Neil, Ryan C -- He, Yupeng -- Daughtry, Brittany -- Schultz, Matthew D -- Hariharan, Manoj -- Nery, Joseph R -- Castanon, Rosa -- Sabatini, Karen -- Thiagarajan, Rathi D -- Tachibana, Masahito -- Kang, Eunju -- Tippner-Hedges, Rebecca -- Ahmed, Riffat -- Gutierrez, Nuria Marti -- Van Dyken, Crystal -- Polat, Alim -- Sugawara, Atsushi -- Sparman, Michelle -- Gokhale, Sumita -- Amato, Paula -- Wolf, Don P -- Ecker, Joseph R -- Laurent, Louise C -- Mitalipov, Shoukhrat -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jul 10;511(7508):177-83. doi: 10.1038/nature13551. Epub 2014 Jul 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Center for Embryonic Cell and Gene Therapy, Oregon Health & Science University, 3303 Southwest Bond Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA [2] Division of Reproductive and Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, 505 Northwest 185th Avenue, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA [3]. ; 1] Department of Reproductive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine, 2880 Torrey Pines Scenic Drive, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [2]. ; 1] Genomic Analysis Laboratory, the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [2] Bioinformatics Program, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; 1] Center for Embryonic Cell and Gene Therapy, Oregon Health & Science University, 3303 Southwest Bond Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA [2] Division of Reproductive and Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, 505 Northwest 185th Avenue, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA. ; Genomic Analysis Laboratory, the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Department of Reproductive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine, 2880 Torrey Pines Scenic Drive, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; 1] Division of Reproductive and Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, 505 Northwest 185th Avenue, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA [2] Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, South Miyagi Medical Center, Shibata-gun, Miyagi 989-1253, Japan (M.T.); Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden (A.P.). ; Division of Reproductive and Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, 505 Northwest 185th Avenue, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA. ; University Pathologists LLC, Boston University School of Medicine, Roger Williams Medical Center, Providence, Rhode Island 02118, USA. ; Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 Southwest Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. ; 1] Genomic Analysis Laboratory, the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; 1] Center for Embryonic Cell and Gene Therapy, Oregon Health & Science University, 3303 Southwest Bond Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA [2] Division of Reproductive and Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, 505 Northwest 185th Avenue, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA [3] Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 Southwest Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25008523" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; *Cellular Reprogramming ; Chromosome Aberrations ; Chromosomes, Human, X/genetics/metabolism ; DNA Copy Number Variations ; DNA Methylation ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Genomic Imprinting ; Humans ; Nuclear Transfer Techniques/standards ; Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology/*metabolism ; Transcriptome
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-02-20
    Description: Allelic differences between the two homologous chromosomes can affect the propensity of inheritance in humans; however, the extent of such differences in the human genome has yet to be fully explored. Here we delineate allelic chromatin modifications and transcriptomes among a broad set of human tissues, enabled by a chromosome-spanning haplotype reconstruction strategy. The resulting large collection of haplotype-resolved epigenomic maps reveals extensive allelic biases in both chromatin state and transcription, which show considerable variation across tissues and between individuals, and allow us to investigate cis-regulatory relationships between genes and their control sequences. Analyses of histone modification maps also uncover intriguing characteristics of cis-regulatory elements and tissue-restricted activities of repetitive elements. The rich data sets described here will enhance our understanding of the mechanisms by which cis-regulatory elements control gene expression programs.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4449149/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4449149/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Leung, Danny -- Jung, Inkyung -- Rajagopal, Nisha -- Schmitt, Anthony -- Selvaraj, Siddarth -- Lee, Ah Young -- Yen, Chia-An -- Lin, Shin -- Lin, Yiing -- Qiu, Yunjiang -- Xie, Wei -- Yue, Feng -- Hariharan, Manoj -- Ray, Pradipta -- Kuan, Samantha -- Edsall, Lee -- Yang, Hongbo -- Chi, Neil C -- Zhang, Michael Q -- Ecker, Joseph R -- Ren, Bing -- ES017166/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- F32 HL110473/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- F32HL110473/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K99 HL119617/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K99HL119617/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 ES024984/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008666/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 ES017166/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Feb 19;518(7539):350-4. doi: 10.1038/nature14217.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; 1] Department of Genetics, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Drive, M-344 Stanford, California 94305, USA [2] Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University, Falk Building, 870 Quarry Road Stanford, California 94304, USA. ; 1] Department of Genetics, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Drive, M-344 Stanford, California 94305, USA [2] Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Ave, Campus Box 8109, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Tsinghua University-Peking University Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, The Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA. ; Genomic Analysis Laboratory, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Biological Sciences, Center for Systems Biology, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of California, San Diego, California 92093-0613, USA. ; 1] Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of California, San Diego, California 92093-0613, USA [2] Institute of Genomic Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California 92093, USA. ; 1] Biological Sciences, Center for Systems Biology, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080, USA [2] Bioinformatics Division, Center for Synthetic and Systems Biology, TNLIST Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; 1] Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2] Institute of Genomic Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California 92093, USA [3] Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [4] UCSD Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25693566" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; *Alleles ; Chromatin/genetics/metabolism ; Chromosomes, Human/genetics ; Datasets as Topic ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic/*genetics ; *Epigenomics ; Genetic Variation/genetics ; Haplotypes/*genetics ; Histones/metabolism ; Humans ; Nucleotide Motifs ; Organ Specificity/genetics ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-06-02
    Description: Understanding the diversity of human tissues is fundamental to disease and requires linking genetic information, which is identical in most of an individual's cells, with epigenetic mechanisms that could have tissue-specific roles. Surveys of DNA methylation in human tissues have established a complex landscape including both tissue-specific and invariant methylation patterns. Here we report high coverage methylomes that catalogue cytosine methylation in all contexts for the major human organ systems, integrated with matched transcriptomes and genomic sequence. By combining these diverse data types with each individuals' phased genome, we identified widespread tissue-specific differential CG methylation (mCG), partially methylated domains, allele-specific methylation and transcription, and the unexpected presence of non-CG methylation (mCH) in almost all human tissues. mCH correlated with tissue-specific functions, and using this mark, we made novel predictions of genes that escape X-chromosome inactivation in specific tissues. Overall, DNA methylation in several genomic contexts varies substantially among human tissues.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4499021/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4499021/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Schultz, Matthew D -- He, Yupeng -- Whitaker, John W -- Hariharan, Manoj -- Mukamel, Eran A -- Leung, Danny -- Rajagopal, Nisha -- Nery, Joseph R -- Urich, Mark A -- Chen, Huaming -- Lin, Shin -- Lin, Yiing -- Jung, Inkyung -- Schmitt, Anthony D -- Selvaraj, Siddarth -- Ren, Bing -- Sejnowski, Terrence J -- Wang, Wei -- Ecker, Joseph R -- F32 HL110473/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- F32HL110473/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K99 HL119617/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K99 NS080911/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- K99HL119617/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R00 NS080911/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R00NS080911/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 ES024984/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008666/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 ES017166/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jul 9;523(7559):212-6. doi: 10.1038/nature14465. Epub 2015 Jun 1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Bioinformatics Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2] Genomic Analysis Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Genomic Analysis Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; 1] Computational Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [2] Department of Cognitive Science, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Drive, M-344 Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8109, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Bioinformatics Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; 1] Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2] University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Institute of Genomic Medicine, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; 1] Computational Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [2] Division of Biological Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [3] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; 1] Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2] Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; 1] Genomic Analysis Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26030523" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Age Factors ; Alleles ; Chromosome Mapping ; *DNA Methylation ; *Epigenesis, Genetic ; Female ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Genetic Variation ; Humans ; Male ; Organ Specificity
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0378-4347
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: yohimbine ; pharmacokinetics ; bioavailability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Pharmacokinetic profiles were determined in seven healthy young male subjects following single oral and intravenous doses of 10 mg of yohimbine hydrochloride. The drug was rapidly eliminated (t1/2β 0.58 h orally and t1/2β 0.68 h intravenously). Following intravenous administration the data fit a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model, with a very rapid distribution phase (t1/2a was approximately 6 min). Both the oral and the intravenous yohimbine clearance values were high but oral clearance values were much higher (mean 9.77 ml·min−1·kg−1 intravenous versus 55.9 ml·min−1·kg−1 oral). The oral bioavailability showed great variability, ranging from 7% to 87% (mean value was 33%). The imcomplete oral bioavailability of yohimbine may reflect either incomplete absorption from the gastrointestinal tract or an hepatic first pass effect. Although yohimbine is rapidly absorbed when given orally, the bioavailability is quite variable and considerable individualization of dosing may be necessary when the drug is used orally for clinical indications.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1360-0443
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Sensitivity to nicotine was explored using test doses administered via intra-nasal aerosol in 10 smokers and JO never-smokers. Smokers received 1.50 mg nicotine (in 2 sprays, 〈 5 seconds apart, one spray per nostril); never-smokers received either 0.50 mg (n = 3) or 0.25 (n = 7) nicotine. Accumulation of nicotine in plasma, per unit dose administered, was nearly four times greater in never-smokers, than in smokers, indicating differences in pharmacokinetic tolerance. To examine sensitivity to nicotine without this confound, peak physiological reactivity (heart rate and blood pressure changes) was divided by peak plasma nicotine increment and the ratio was expressed as a function of cotinine level prior to dosing, thereby relating sensitivity to nicotine to history of exposure. In smokers, functional sensitivity to nicotine was inversely related to customary nicotine intake, replicating previous findings for light and heavy smokers. The observation that never-smokers were not much more sensitive to nicotine than light smokers is notable given the disparity in previous history of exposure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford [u.a.] : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 46 (1990), S. 1056-1058 
    ISSN: 1600-5759
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Inorganic chemistry 8 (1969), S. 556-559 
    ISSN: 1520-510X
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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