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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-02-02
    Description: Receptor-interacting protein kinase 4 (RIPK4) is required for epidermal differentiation and is mutated in Bartsocas-Papas syndrome. RIPK4 binds to protein kinase C, but its signaling mechanisms are largely unknown. Ectopic RIPK4, but not catalytically inactive or Bartsocas-Papas RIPK4 mutants, induced accumulation of cytosolic beta-catenin and a transcriptional program similar to that caused by Wnt3a. In Xenopus embryos, Ripk4 synergized with coexpressed Xwnt8, whereas Ripk4 morpholinos or catalytic inactive Ripk4 antagonized Wnt signaling. RIPK4 interacted constitutively with the adaptor protein DVL2 and, after Wnt3a stimulation, with the co-receptor LRP6. Phosphorylation of DVL2 by RIPK4 favored canonical Wnt signaling. Wnt-dependent growth of xenografted human tumor cells was suppressed by RIPK4 knockdown, suggesting that RIPK4 overexpression may contribute to the growth of certain tumor types.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4094295/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4094295/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, XiaoDong -- McGann, James C -- Liu, Bob Y -- Hannoush, Rami N -- Lill, Jennie R -- Pham, Victoria -- Newton, Kim -- Kakunda, Michael -- Liu, Jinfeng -- Yu, Christine -- Hymowitz, Sarah G -- Hongo, Jo-Anne -- Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony -- Polakis, Paul -- Harland, Richard M -- Dixit, Vishva M -- R01 GM042341/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS073159/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Mar 22;339(6126):1441-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1232253. Epub 2013 Jan 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physiological Chemistry, Genentech, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23371553" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/*metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Line ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cytosol/metabolism ; Female ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-6/metabolism ; Neoplasm Transplantation ; Neoplasms/metabolism ; Ovarian Neoplasms/metabolism ; Phosphoproteins/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics/*metabolism ; Transplantation, Heterologous ; *Wnt Signaling Pathway ; Wnt3A Protein/metabolism ; Xenopus Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Xenopus laevis/embryology/metabolism ; beta Catenin/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-11-15
    Description: So far, two genes associated with familial melanoma have been identified, accounting for a minority of genetic risk in families. Mutations in CDKN2A account for approximately 40% of familial cases, and predisposing mutations in CDK4 have been reported in a very small number of melanoma kindreds. Here we report the whole-genome sequencing of probands from several melanoma families, which we performed in order to identify other genes associated with familial melanoma. We identify one individual carrying a novel germline variant (coding DNA sequence c.G1075A; protein sequence p.E318K; rs149617956) in the melanoma-lineage-specific oncogene microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Although the variant co-segregated with melanoma in some but not all cases in the family, linkage analysis of 31 families subsequently identified to carry the variant generated a log of odds (lod) score of 2.7 under a dominant model, indicating E318K as a possible intermediate risk variant. Consistent with this, the E318K variant was significantly associated with melanoma in a large Australian case-control sample. Likewise, it was similarly associated in an independent case-control sample from the United Kingdom. In the Australian sample, the variant allele was significantly over-represented in cases with a family history of melanoma, multiple primary melanomas, or both. The variant allele was also associated with increased naevus count and non-blue eye colour. Functional analysis of E318K showed that MITF encoded by the variant allele had impaired sumoylation and differentially regulated several MITF targets. These data indicate that MITF is a melanoma-predisposition gene and highlight the utility of whole-genome sequencing to identify novel rare variants associated with disease susceptibility.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3266855/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3266855/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yokoyama, Satoru -- Woods, Susan L -- Boyle, Glen M -- Aoude, Lauren G -- MacGregor, Stuart -- Zismann, Victoria -- Gartside, Michael -- Cust, Anne E -- Haq, Rizwan -- Harland, Mark -- Taylor, John C -- Duffy, David L -- Holohan, Kelly -- Dutton-Regester, Ken -- Palmer, Jane M -- Bonazzi, Vanessa -- Stark, Mitchell S -- Symmons, Judith -- Law, Matthew H -- Schmidt, Christopher -- Lanagan, Cathy -- O'Connor, Linda -- Holland, Elizabeth A -- Schmid, Helen -- Maskiell, Judith A -- Jetann, Jodie -- Ferguson, Megan -- Jenkins, Mark A -- Kefford, Richard F -- Giles, Graham G -- Armstrong, Bruce K -- Aitken, Joanne F -- Hopper, John L -- Whiteman, David C -- Pharoah, Paul D -- Easton, Douglas F -- Dunning, Alison M -- Newton-Bishop, Julia A -- Montgomery, Grant W -- Martin, Nicholas G -- Mann, Graham J -- Bishop, D Timothy -- Tsao, Hensin -- Trent, Jeffrey M -- Fisher, David E -- Hayward, Nicholas K -- Brown, Kevin M -- 10118/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- 10589/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- AR043369-14/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- C490/A11021/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- C588/A10589/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- C588/A4994/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- C8197/A10123/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- C8216/A6129/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- CA88363/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- K24CA149202/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50CA9368/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR043369/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA-83115-01A2/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA088363/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA088363-09/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA83115/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Nov 13;480(7375):99-103. doi: 10.1038/nature10630.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Dermatology, Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts 02114, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22080950" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; *Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Humans ; Male ; Melanoma/*genetics ; Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor/*genetics ; Middle Aged ; *Mutation ; Sumoylation/genetics ; Young Adult
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; ACTIVATION ; ASSOCIATION ; CANDIDATE GENE ; chemotherapy ; sensitivity ; CUTANEOUS MELANOMA ; POLYMERASE ; GENOME BROWSER ; SNP SELECTION
    Abstract: We report the association of an inherited variant located upstream of the poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) gene (rs2249844), with survival in 11 BioGenoMEL melanoma cohorts. The gene encodes a protein involved in a number of cellular processes including single-strand DNA repair. Survival analysis was conducted for each cohort using proportional hazards regression adjusting for factors known to be associated with survival. Survival was measured as overall survival (OS) and, where available, melanoma-specific survival (MSS). Results were combined using random effects meta-analysis. Evidence for a role of the PARP1 protein in melanoma ulceration and survival was investigated by testing gene expression levels taken from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumors. A significant association was seen for inheritance of the rarer variant of PARP1, rs2249844 with OS (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.16 per allele, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.28, p = 0.005, eleven cohorts) and MSS (HR = 1.20 per allele, 95% CI 1.01-1.39, p = 0.03, eight cohorts). We report bioinformatic data supportive of a functional effect for rs2249844. Higher levels of PARP1 gene expression in tumors were shown to be associated with tumor ulceration and poorer OS.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24535833
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  • 4
    Keywords: ASSOCIATION ; STEM-CELLS ; SKIN-CANCER ; CELL CARCINOMA ; CANCER-RISK ; SEQUENCE VARIANTS ; GENOTYPE IMPUTATION ; MEAN TELOMERE LENGTH ; PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERISTICS ; FIELD SYNOPSIS
    Abstract: Thirteen common susceptibility loci have been reproducibly associated with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). We report the results of an international 2-stage meta-analysis of CMM genome-wide association studies (GWAS). This meta-analysis combines 11 GWAS (5 previously unpublished) and a further three stage 2 data sets, totaling 15,990 CMM cases and 26,409 controls. Five loci not previously associated with CMM risk reached genome-wide significance (P 〈 5 x 10(-8)), as did 2 previously reported but unreplicated loci and all 13 established loci. Newly associated SNPs fall within putative melanocyte regulatory elements, and bioinformatic and expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) data highlight candidate genes in the associated regions, including one involved in telomere biology.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26237428
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  • 5
    Abstract: Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 15 independent genomic regions associated with bladder cancer risk. In search for additional susceptibility variants, we followed up on four promising single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that had not achieved genome-wide significance in 6911 cases and 11 814 controls (rs6104690, rs4510656, rs5003154 and rs4907479, P 〈 1 x 10(-6)), using additional data from existing GWAS datasets and targeted genotyping for studies that did not have GWAS data. In a combined analysis, which included data on up to 15 058 cases and 286 270 controls, two SNPs achieved genome-wide statistical significance: rs6104690 in a gene desert at 20p12.2 (P = 2.19 x 10(-11)) and rs4907479 within the MCF2L gene at 13q34 (P = 3.3 x 10(-10)). Imputation and fine-mapping analyses were performed in these two regions for a subset of 5551 bladder cancer cases and 10 242 controls. Analyses at the 13q34 region suggest a single signal marked by rs4907479. In contrast, we detected two signals in the 20p12.2 region-the first signal is marked by rs6104690, and the second signal is marked by two moderately correlated SNPs (r(2) = 0.53), rs6108803 and the previously reported rs62185668. The second 20p12.2 signal is more strongly associated with the risk of muscle-invasive (T2-T4 stage) compared with non-muscle-invasive (Ta, T1 stage) bladder cancer (case-case P 〈/= 0.02 for both rs62185668 and rs6108803). Functional analyses are needed to explore the biological mechanisms underlying these novel genetic associations with risk for bladder cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26732427
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  • 6
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; proliferation ; SURVIVAL ; COHORT ; DEATH ; RISK ; GENE ; PATIENT ; DNA ; RISK-FACTORS ; BIOLOGY ; MELANOMA ; DNA-REPAIR GENES ; TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION ; MELANOCYTES ; survival analysis ; RECEPTOR GENE ; MITF ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; MC1R ; BRAF-MUTANT MELANOMA ; CDKN2A MUTATION CARRIERS ; forest plot
    Abstract: Inherited MC1R variants modulate MITF transcription factor signaling, which in turn affects tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. The aim of this BioGenoMEL collaborative study in 10 melanoma cohorts was to test the hypothesis that inherited variants thereby moderate survival expectation. A survival analysis in the largest cohort (Leeds) was carried out adjusting for factors known to impact on survival. The results were then compared with data from nine smaller cohorts. The absence of any consensus MC1R alleles was associated with a significantly lower risk of death in the Leeds set (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46-0.89) and overall in the 10 data sets (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65-0.94) with some support from the nine smaller data sets considered together (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.67-1.04). The data are suggestive of a survival benefit for inherited MC1R variants in melanoma patients.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22325793
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  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; MORTALITY ; ISOFORMS ; DETERMINANTS ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN D LEVELS
    Abstract: An association between low serum vitamin D levels and poorer melanoma survival has been reported. We have studied inheritance of a polymorphism of the GC gene, rs2282679, coding for the vitamin D-binding protein, which is associated with lower serum levels of vitamin D, in a meta-analysis of 3137 melanoma patients. The aim was to investigate evidence for a causal relationship between vitamin D and outcome (Mendelian randomization). The variant was not associated with reduced overall survival (OS) in the UK cohort, per-allele hazard ratio (HR) for death 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93, 1.64). In the smaller cohorts, HR in OS analysis was 1.07 (95% CI 0.88, 1.3) and for all cohorts combined, HR for OS was 1.09 (95% CI 0.93, 1.29). There was evidence of increased melanoma-specific deaths in the seven cohorts for which these data were available. The lack of unequivocal findings despite the large sample size illustrates the difficulties of implementing Mendelian randomization.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24219834
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: Polar forests once extended across the high-latitude landmasses during ice-free ‘greenhouse’ intervals in Earth history. In the Cretaceous ‘greenhouse’ world, Arctic conifer forests were considered predominantly deciduous, while those on Antarctica contained a significantly greater proportion of evergreens. To investigate the causes of this distinctive biogeographical pattern, we developed a coupled model of conifer growth, soil biogeochemistry and forest dynamics. Our approach emphasized general relationships between leaf lifespan (LL) and function, and incorporated the feedback of LL on soil nutrient status. The model was forced with a mid-Cretaceous ‘greenhouse’ climate simulated by the Hadley Centre GCM. Simulated polar forests contained mixtures of dominant LLs, which reproduced observed biogeographical patterns of deciduous, mixed and evergreen biomes. It emerged that disturbance by fire was a critical factor. Frequent fires in simulated Arctic ecosystems promoted the dominance of trees with short LLs that were characterized by the rapid growth and colonization rates typical of today's boreal pioneer species. In Antarctica, however, infrequent fires allowed trees with longer LLs to dominate because they attained greater height, despite slower growth rates. A direct test of the approach was successfully achieved by comparing modelled LLs with quantitative estimates using Cretaceous fossil woods from Svalbard in the European Arctic and Alexander Island, Antarctica. Observations and the model both revealed mixed Arctic and evergreen Antarctic communities with peak dominance of trees with the same LLs. Our study represents a significant departure from the long-held belief that leaf habit was an adaptation to warm, dark winter climates, and highlights a previously unrecognized role for disturbance (in whatever guise) in polar forest ecology.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: non-selective cation channels ; TRP channels ; Xenopus laevis oocytes ; polyclonal antibody ; antisense
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The role of the TRP-1 protein, an animal cell homologue of the Drosophila transient receptor potential Ca2+ channel, in store-operated Ca2+ inflow in Xenopus laevis oocytes was investigated. A strategy involving RT-PCR and 3′ and 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used to confirm and extend previous knowledge of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of Xenopus TRP-1 (xTRP-1). The predicted amino acid sequence was used to prepare an anti-TRP-1 polyclonal antibody which detected the endogenous oocyte xTRP-1 protein and the human TRPC-1 protein expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Ca2+ inflow (measured using fura-2) initiated by 3-deoxy-3-fluoroinositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3F) or lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) was completely inhibited by low concentrations of lanthanides (IC50 = 0.5 μM), indicating that InsP3F and LPA principally activate store-operated Ca2+ channels (SOCs). Antisense cRNA or antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, based on different regions of the xTRP-1 cDNA sequence, when injected into Xenopus oocytes, did not inhibit InsP3F-, LPA- or thapsigargin-stimulated Ca2+ inflow. Oocytes expressing the hTRPC-1 protein, which is 96% similar to xTRP-1, exhibited no detectable enhancement of either basal or InsP3F-stimulated Ca2+ inflow and only a very small enhancement of LPA-stimulated Ca2+ inflow compared with control oocytes. It is concluded that the endogenous xTRP-1 protein is unlikely to be responsible for Ca2+ inflow through the previously-characterised Ca2+-specific SOCs which are found in Xenopus oocytes. It is considered that xTRP-1 is likely to be a receptor-activated non-selective cation channel such as the channel activated by maitotoxin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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