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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-08-22
    Description: Alternative splicing (AS) generates extensive transcriptomic and proteomic complexity. However, the functions of species- and lineage-specific splice variants are largely unknown. Here we show that mammalian-specific skipping of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1) exon 9 alters the splicing regulatory activities of PTBP1 and affects the inclusion levels of numerous exons. During neurogenesis, skipping of exon 9 reduces PTBP1 repressive activity so as to facilitate activation of a brain-specific AS program. Engineered skipping of the orthologous exon in chicken cells induces a large number of mammalian-like AS changes in PTBP1 target exons. These results thus reveal that a single exon-skipping event in an RNA binding regulator directs numerous AS changes between species. Our results further suggest that these changes contributed to evolutionary differences in the formation of vertebrate nervous systems.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gueroussov, Serge -- Gonatopoulos-Pournatzis, Thomas -- Irimia, Manuel -- Raj, Bushra -- Lin, Zhen-Yuan -- Gingras, Anne-Claude -- Blencowe, Benjamin J -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Aug 21;349(6250):868-73. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa8381.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. ; Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. EMBL/CRG Systems Biology Research Unit, Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Dr. Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. ; Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada. ; Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada. ; Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. b.blencowe@utoronto.ca.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26293963" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Alternative Splicing ; Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Brain/*embryology ; Chickens ; Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism ; Exons/genetics ; HEK293 Cells ; Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/*genetics ; Humans ; Mice ; Neural Stem Cells/metabolism ; Neurogenesis/*genetics ; Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-12-04
    Description: Cryptophyte and chlorarachniophyte algae are transitional forms in the widespread secondary endosymbiotic acquisition of photosynthesis by engulfment of eukaryotic algae. Unlike most secondary plastid-bearing algae, miniaturized versions of the endosymbiont nuclei (nucleomorphs) persist in cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes. To determine why, and to address other fundamental questions about eukaryote-eukaryote endosymbiosis, we sequenced the nuclear genomes of the cryptophyte Guillardia theta and the chlorarachniophyte Bigelowiella natans. Both genomes have 〉21,000 protein genes and are intron rich, and B. natans exhibits unprecedented alternative splicing for a single-celled organism. Phylogenomic analyses and subcellular targeting predictions reveal extensive genetic and biochemical mosaicism, with both host- and endosymbiont-derived genes servicing the mitochondrion, the host cell cytosol, the plastid and the remnant endosymbiont cytosol of both algae. Mitochondrion-to-nucleus gene transfer still occurs in both organisms but plastid-to-nucleus and nucleomorph-to-nucleus transfers do not, which explains why a small residue of essential genes remains locked in each nucleomorph.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Curtis, Bruce A -- Tanifuji, Goro -- Burki, Fabien -- Gruber, Ansgar -- Irimia, Manuel -- Maruyama, Shinichiro -- Arias, Maria C -- Ball, Steven G -- Gile, Gillian H -- Hirakawa, Yoshihisa -- Hopkins, Julia F -- Kuo, Alan -- Rensing, Stefan A -- Schmutz, Jeremy -- Symeonidi, Aikaterini -- Elias, Marek -- Eveleigh, Robert J M -- Herman, Emily K -- Klute, Mary J -- Nakayama, Takuro -- Obornik, Miroslav -- Reyes-Prieto, Adrian -- Armbrust, E Virginia -- Aves, Stephen J -- Beiko, Robert G -- Coutinho, Pedro -- Dacks, Joel B -- Durnford, Dion G -- Fast, Naomi M -- Green, Beverley R -- Grisdale, Cameron J -- Hempel, Franziska -- Henrissat, Bernard -- Hoppner, Marc P -- Ishida, Ken-Ichiro -- Kim, Eunsoo -- Koreny, Ludek -- Kroth, Peter G -- Liu, Yuan -- Malik, Shehre-Banoo -- Maier, Uwe G -- McRose, Darcy -- Mock, Thomas -- Neilson, Jonathan A D -- Onodera, Naoko T -- Poole, Anthony M -- Pritham, Ellen J -- Richards, Thomas A -- Rocap, Gabrielle -- Roy, Scott W -- Sarai, Chihiro -- Schaack, Sarah -- Shirato, Shu -- Slamovits, Claudio H -- Spencer, David F -- Suzuki, Shigekatsu -- Worden, Alexandra Z -- Zauner, Stefan -- Barry, Kerrie -- Bell, Callum -- Bharti, Arvind K -- Crow, John A -- Grimwood, Jane -- Kramer, Robin -- Lindquist, Erika -- Lucas, Susan -- Salamov, Asaf -- McFadden, Geoffrey I -- Lane, Christopher E -- Keeling, Patrick J -- Gray, Michael W -- Grigoriev, Igor V -- Archibald, John M -- BB/G00885X/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Dec 6;492(7427):59-65. doi: 10.1038/nature11681. Epub 2012 Nov 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23201678" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Algal Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Alternative Splicing/genetics ; Cell Nucleus/*genetics ; Cercozoa/cytology/*genetics/metabolism ; Cryptophyta/cytology/*genetics/metabolism ; Cytosol/metabolism ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Duplication/genetics ; Gene Transfer, Horizontal/genetics ; Genes, Essential/genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; Genome, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Genome, Plant/genetics ; Genome, Plastid/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; *Mosaicism ; Phylogeny ; Protein Transport ; Proteome/genetics/metabolism ; Symbiosis/*genetics ; Transcriptome/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-07-13
    Description: RNA-binding proteins are key regulators of gene expression, yet only a small fraction have been functionally characterized. Here we report a systematic analysis of the RNA motifs recognized by RNA-binding proteins, encompassing 205 distinct genes from 24 diverse eukaryotes. The sequence specificities of RNA-binding proteins display deep evolutionary conservation, and the recognition preferences for a large fraction of metazoan RNA-binding proteins can thus be inferred from their RNA-binding domain sequence. The motifs that we identify in vitro correlate well with in vivo RNA-binding data. Moreover, we can associate them with distinct functional roles in diverse types of post-transcriptional regulation, enabling new insights into the functions of RNA-binding proteins both in normal physiology and in human disease. These data provide an unprecedented overview of RNA-binding proteins and their targets, and constitute an invaluable resource for determining post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in eukaryotes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3929597/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3929597/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ray, Debashish -- Kazan, Hilal -- Cook, Kate B -- Weirauch, Matthew T -- Najafabadi, Hamed S -- Li, Xiao -- Gueroussov, Serge -- Albu, Mihai -- Zheng, Hong -- Yang, Ally -- Na, Hong -- Irimia, Manuel -- Matzat, Leah H -- Dale, Ryan K -- Smith, Sarah A -- Yarosh, Christopher A -- Kelly, Seth M -- Nabet, Behnam -- Mecenas, Desirea -- Li, Weimin -- Laishram, Rakesh S -- Qiao, Mei -- Lipshitz, Howard D -- Piano, Fabio -- Corbett, Anita H -- Carstens, Russ P -- Frey, Brendan J -- Anderson, Richard A -- Lynch, Kristen W -- Penalva, Luiz O F -- Lei, Elissa P -- Fraser, Andrew G -- Blencowe, Benjamin J -- Morris, Quaid D -- Hughes, Timothy R -- 1R01HG00570/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- DK015602-05/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- MOP-125894/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- MOP-14409/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- MOP-49451/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- MOP-67011/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- MOP-93671/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- P30 CA014520/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA104708/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM051968/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084034/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG005700/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01GM084034/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008061/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Z01 DK015602-01/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jul 11;499(7457):172-7. doi: 10.1038/nature12311.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3E1, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23846655" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Autistic Disorder/genetics ; Base Sequence ; Binding Sites/genetics ; Conserved Sequence/genetics ; Eukaryotic Cells/metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation/*genetics ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Nucleotide Motifs/*genetics ; Protein Structure, Tertiary/genetics ; RNA Stability/genetics ; RNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-01-10
    Description: The emergence of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) from jawless vertebrates was accompanied by major morphological and physiological innovations, such as hinged jaws, paired fins and immunoglobulin-based adaptive immunity. Gnathostomes subsequently diverged into two groups, the cartilaginous fishes and the bony vertebrates. Here we report the whole-genome analysis of a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii). We find that the C. milii genome is the slowest evolving of all known vertebrates, including the 'living fossil' coelacanth, and features extensive synteny conservation with tetrapod genomes, making it a good model for comparative analyses of gnathostome genomes. Our functional studies suggest that the lack of genes encoding secreted calcium-binding phosphoproteins in cartilaginous fishes explains the absence of bone in their endoskeleton. Furthermore, the adaptive immune system of cartilaginous fishes is unusual: it lacks the canonical CD4 co-receptor and most transcription factors, cytokines and cytokine receptors related to the CD4 lineage, despite the presence of polymorphic major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. It thus presents a new model for understanding the origin of adaptive immunity.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3964593/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3964593/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Venkatesh, Byrappa -- Lee, Alison P -- Ravi, Vydianathan -- Maurya, Ashish K -- Lian, Michelle M -- Swann, Jeremy B -- Ohta, Yuko -- Flajnik, Martin F -- Sutoh, Yoichi -- Kasahara, Masanori -- Hoon, Shawn -- Gangu, Vamshidhar -- Roy, Scott W -- Irimia, Manuel -- Korzh, Vladimir -- Kondrychyn, Igor -- Lim, Zhi Wei -- Tay, Boon-Hui -- Tohari, Sumanty -- Kong, Kiat Whye -- Ho, Shufen -- Lorente-Galdos, Belen -- Quilez, Javier -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- Raney, Brian J -- Ingham, Philip W -- Tay, Alice -- Hillier, LaDeana W -- Minx, Patrick -- Boehm, Thomas -- Wilson, Richard K -- Brenner, Sydney -- Warren, Wesley C -- AI27877/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI027877/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 OD010549/OD/NIH HHS/ -- RR006603/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U41 HG002371/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jan 9;505(7482):174-9. doi: 10.1038/nature12826.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Comparative Genomics Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, A*STAR, Biopolis, Singapore 138673 [2] Department of Paediatrics, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228. ; Comparative Genomics Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, A*STAR, Biopolis, Singapore 138673. ; Developmental and Biomedical Genetics Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, A*STAR, Biopolis, Singapore 138673. ; Department of Developmental Immunology, Max-Planck-Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics, Stuebeweg 51, 79108 Freiburg, Germany. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan. ; Molecular Engineering Laboratory, Biomedical Sciences Institutes, A*STAR, Biopolis, Singapore 138673. ; Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94132, USA. ; Banting and Best Department of Medical Research and Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. ; Fish Developmental Biology Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, A*STAR, Biopolis, Singapore 138673. ; 1] Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (UPF-CSIC), PRBB, 08003 Barcelona, Spain [2] Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ; Center for Biomolecular Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA. ; The Genome Institute at Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24402279" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium/metabolism ; Cell Lineage/immunology ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Fish Proteins/classification/genetics ; Gene Deletion ; Genome/*genetics ; Genomics ; Immunity, Cellular/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Osteogenesis/genetics ; Phosphoproteins/genetics/metabolism ; Phylogeny ; Protein Structure, Tertiary/genetics ; Sharks/*genetics/immunology ; T-Lymphocytes/cytology/immunology ; Time Factors ; Vertebrates/classification/genetics ; Zebrafish/genetics/growth & development
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-06-07
    Description: Previous investigations of the core gene regulatory circuitry that controls the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells have largely focused on the roles of transcription, chromatin and non-coding RNA regulators. Alternative splicing represents a widely acting mode of gene regulation, yet its role in regulating ES-cell pluripotency and differentiation is poorly understood. Here we identify the muscleblind-like RNA binding proteins, MBNL1 and MBNL2, as conserved and direct negative regulators of a large program of cassette exon alternative splicing events that are differentially regulated between ES cells and other cell types. Knockdown of MBNL proteins in differentiated cells causes switching to an ES-cell-like alternative splicing pattern for approximately half of these events, whereas overexpression of MBNL proteins in ES cells promotes differentiated-cell-like alternative splicing patterns. Among the MBNL-regulated events is an ES-cell-specific alternative splicing switch in the forkhead family transcription factor FOXP1 that controls pluripotency. Consistent with a central and negative regulatory role for MBNL proteins in pluripotency, their knockdown significantly enhances the expression of key pluripotency genes and the formation of induced pluripotent stem cells during somatic cell reprogramming.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3933998/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3933998/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Han, Hong -- Irimia, Manuel -- Ross, P Joel -- Sung, Hoon-Ki -- Alipanahi, Babak -- David, Laurent -- Golipour, Azadeh -- Gabut, Mathieu -- Michael, Iacovos P -- Nachman, Emil N -- Wang, Eric -- Trcka, Dan -- Thompson, Tadeo -- O'Hanlon, Dave -- Slobodeniuc, Valentina -- Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L -- Burge, Christopher B -- Moffat, Jason -- Frey, Brendan J -- Nagy, Andras -- Ellis, James -- Wrana, Jeffrey L -- Blencowe, Benjamin J -- R01 HG002439/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R33 MH087908/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R33MH087908/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jun 13;498(7453):241-5. doi: 10.1038/nature12270. Epub 2013 Jun 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Banting and Best Department of Medical Research and Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23739326" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Alternative Splicing/genetics ; Amino Acid Motifs ; Animals ; Cell Differentiation/genetics ; Cell Line ; *Cellular Reprogramming ; DNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Embryonic Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Fibroblasts/cytology/metabolism ; Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; HEK293 Cells ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Kinetics ; Mice ; RNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Repressor Proteins/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-12-22
    Description: How species with similar repertoires of protein-coding genes differ so markedly at the phenotypic level is poorly understood. By comparing organ transcriptomes from vertebrate species spanning ~350 million years of evolution, we observed significant differences in alternative splicing complexity between vertebrate lineages, with the highest complexity in primates. Within 6 million years, the splicing profiles of physiologically equivalent organs diverged such that they are more strongly related to the identity of a species than they are to organ type. Most vertebrate species-specific splicing patterns are cis-directed. However, a subset of pronounced splicing changes are predicted to remodel protein interactions involving trans-acting regulators. These events likely further contributed to the diversification of splicing and other transcriptomic changes that underlie phenotypic differences among vertebrate species.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L -- Irimia, Manuel -- Pan, Qun -- Xiong, Hui Y -- Gueroussov, Serge -- Lee, Leo J -- Slobodeniuc, Valentina -- Kutter, Claudia -- Watt, Stephen -- Colak, Recep -- Kim, TaeHyung -- Misquitta-Ali, Christine M -- Wilson, Michael D -- Kim, Philip M -- Odom, Duncan T -- Frey, Brendan J -- Blencowe, Benjamin J -- 15603/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- A15603/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Dec 21;338(6114):1587-93. doi: 10.1126/science.1230612.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23258890" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Alternative Splicing ; Animals ; Biological Evolution ; Chickens/genetics ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Exons ; Introns ; Lizards/genetics ; Mice/genetics ; Mice, Inbred C57BL/genetics ; Opossums/genetics ; Phenotype ; Platypus/genetics ; Primates/genetics ; RNA Splice Sites ; Regulatory Sequences, Ribonucleic Acid ; Species Specificity ; *Transcriptome ; Vertebrates/*genetics ; Xenopus/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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