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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-01-06
    Description: Oestrogen receptor-alpha (ER) is the defining and driving transcription factor in the majority of breast cancers and its target genes dictate cell growth and endocrine response, yet genomic understanding of ER function has been restricted to model systems. Here we map genome-wide ER-binding events, by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq), in primary breast cancers from patients with different clinical outcomes and in distant ER-positive metastases. We find that drug-resistant cancers still recruit ER to the chromatin, but that ER binding is a dynamic process, with the acquisition of unique ER-binding regions in tumours from patients that are likely to relapse. The acquired ER regulatory regions associated with poor clinical outcome observed in primary tumours reveal gene signatures that predict clinical outcome in ER-positive disease exclusively. We find that the differential ER-binding programme observed in tumours from patients with poor outcome is not due to the selection of a rare subpopulation of cells, but is due to the FOXA1-mediated reprogramming of ER binding on a rapid timescale. The parallel redistribution of ER and FOXA1 binding events in drug-resistant cellular contexts is supported by histological co-expression of ER and FOXA1 in metastatic samples. By establishing transcription-factor mapping in primary tumour material, we show that there is plasticity in ER-binding capacity, with distinct combinations of cis-regulatory elements linked with the different clinical outcomes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3272464/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3272464/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ross-Innes, Caryn S -- Stark, Rory -- Teschendorff, Andrew E -- Holmes, Kelly A -- Ali, H Raza -- Dunning, Mark J -- Brown, Gordon D -- Gojis, Ondrej -- Ellis, Ian O -- Green, Andrew R -- Ali, Simak -- Chin, Suet-Feung -- Palmieri, Carlo -- Caldas, Carlos -- Carroll, Jason S -- A10178/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jan 4;481(7381):389-93. doi: 10.1038/nature10730.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cancer Research UK, Cambridge Research Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22217937" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; Breast Neoplasms/*diagnosis/drug therapy/*genetics/pathology ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects/genetics ; Female ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects ; Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-alpha/metabolism ; Humans ; Neoplasm Metastasis/genetics ; Prognosis ; Protein Binding ; Receptors, Estrogen/*metabolism ; Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid/genetics ; Survival Analysis ; Tamoxifen/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Treatment Outcome
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-04-24
    Description: The elucidation of breast cancer subgroups and their molecular drivers requires integrated views of the genome and transcriptome from representative numbers of patients. We present an integrated analysis of copy number and gene expression in a discovery and validation set of 997 and 995 primary breast tumours, respectively, with long-term clinical follow-up. Inherited variants (copy number variants and single nucleotide polymorphisms) and acquired somatic copy number aberrations (CNAs) were associated with expression in ~40% of genes, with the landscape dominated by cis- and trans-acting CNAs. By delineating expression outlier genes driven in cis by CNAs, we identified putative cancer genes, including deletions in PPP2R2A, MTAP and MAP2K4. Unsupervised analysis of paired DNA-RNA profiles revealed novel subgroups with distinct clinical outcomes, which reproduced in the validation cohort. These include a high-risk, oestrogen-receptor-positive 11q13/14 cis-acting subgroup and a favourable prognosis subgroup devoid of CNAs. Trans-acting aberration hotspots were found to modulate subgroup-specific gene networks, including a TCR deletion-mediated adaptive immune response in the 'CNA-devoid' subgroup and a basal-specific chromosome 5 deletion-associated mitotic network. Our results provide a novel molecular stratification of the breast cancer population, derived from the impact of somatic CNAs on the transcriptome.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3440846/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3440846/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Curtis, Christina -- Shah, Sohrab P -- Chin, Suet-Feung -- Turashvili, Gulisa -- Rueda, Oscar M -- Dunning, Mark J -- Speed, Doug -- Lynch, Andy G -- Samarajiwa, Shamith -- Yuan, Yinyin -- Graf, Stefan -- Ha, Gavin -- Haffari, Gholamreza -- Bashashati, Ali -- Russell, Roslin -- McKinney, Steven -- METABRIC Group -- Langerod, Anita -- Green, Andrew -- Provenzano, Elena -- Wishart, Gordon -- Pinder, Sarah -- Watson, Peter -- Markowetz, Florian -- Murphy, Leigh -- Ellis, Ian -- Purushotham, Arnie -- Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise -- Brenton, James D -- Tavare, Simon -- Caldas, Carlos -- Aparicio, Samuel -- A7199/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- P50HG02790/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2012 Apr 18;486(7403):346-52. doi: 10.1038/nature10983.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2XZ, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22522925" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Breast Neoplasms/classification/diagnosis/*genetics/*pathology ; DNA Copy Number Variations/*genetics ; Female ; *Gene Expression Profiling ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics ; Genes, Neoplasm/genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genomics ; Humans ; Kaplan-Meier Estimate ; MAP Kinase Kinase 4/genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Prognosis ; Protein Phosphatase 2/genetics ; Treatment Outcome
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Physics of Plasmas 2 (1995), S. 1669-1681 
    ISSN: 1089-7674
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Understanding the Rayleigh–Taylor instability, which develops at an interface where a low density fluid pushes and accelerates a higher density fluid, is important to the design, analysis, and ultimate performance of inertial confinement fusion targets. Existing experimental results measuring the growth of two-dimensional (2-D) perturbations (perturbations translationally invariant in one transverse direction) are adequately modeled using the 2-D hydrodynamic code LASNEX [G. B. Zimmerman and W. L. Kruer, Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 11, 51 (1975)]. However, of ultimate interest is the growth of three-dimensional (3-D) perturbations such as those initiated by surface imperfections or illumination nonuniformities. Direct simulation of such 3-D experiments with all the significant physical processes included and with sufficient resolution is very difficult. This paper addresses how such experiments might be modeled. A model is considered that couples 2-D linear regime hydrodynamic code results with an analytic model to allow modeling of 3-D Rayleigh–Taylor growth through the linear regime and into the weakly nonlinear regime. The model is evaluated in 2-D by comparison with LASNEX results. Finally the model is applied to estimate the dynamics of a hypothetical 3-D foil. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1089-7666
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Emission from oxygen in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral range from 140 to 260 A(ring) is evaluated as a diagnostic for optically thin plasmas. A one-dimensional Lagrangian, two-fluid hydrodynamic simulation code, which is self-consistently coupled to a comprehensive atomic rate equation model is used for the analysis. This model with the associated atomic rates is described and compared to recent data from laboratory experiments.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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