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  • 1
    ISSN: 0378-4347
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0378-4347
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0375-9474
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Transplantation ; Regeneration ; Cerebral ischemia ; Nerve connections ; Hippocampus ; CA1
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The purpose of this study was to examine the structural and connective integration of developing hippocampal neurons grafted to ischemic lesions of the adult rat hippocampus. The 4-vessel occlusion model was used to cause transient cerebral ischemia which damages CA1 pyramidal cells in the dorsal hippocampus, but spares nonpyramidal neurons and afferents in the area. One week later, cell suspensions were made from the CA1 region of fetal (E18-20) rats and injected stereotaxically into the lesion. The recipient brains were examined 6 weeks to 6 months later for survival, morphology, and intrinsic and extrinsic connections of the grafts. The methods used included cell stains, histochemical staining for acetylcholinesterease (AChE), immunocytochemical staining for neuropeptides (cholelecystokinin (CCK), somatostatin (SS), enkephalin (Enk) and an astrocytic marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), as well as tracing by retrograde axonal transport of fluorochromes and light and electron microscopy of anterograde axonal degeneration. The grafts survived well (80%) and were often quite large. They were well integrated in the lesioned host brain area, contained both pyramidal cells and neuropeptidergic neurons and displayed a near normal GFAP immunoreactivity for astrocytes. The latter contrasted the dense gliosis of the host ischemic lesion. Judged by the AChE staining the grafts were innervated by cholinergic host septohippocampal fibers. Ingrowth of host hippocampal commissural fibers was demonstrated by Fink-Heimer staining for degenerating nerve terminals following acute lesions of the hippocampal commissures. At the ultrastructural level degenerating, electron dense terminals of host commissural origin were found even deep inside the graft neuropil in synaptic contact with mainly dendritic spines. A transplant efferent connection to the host brain was demonstrated by retrograde fluorochrome tracing and consisted of a homotypic projection to more posterior levels of the ipsilateral host CA1 and subiculum. Minor abnormal, efferent projections to the host dentate molecular layer were shown in Timm staining. We conclude that fetal CA1 neurons grafted to one week old ischemic lesions of the dorsal CA1 in adult rats become structurally well incorporated and can establish nerve connections with the host brain.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: buserelin ; LHRH superagonist ; histamine-induced rhinitis ; pharmacokinetics ; serum LH
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The influence of experimental rhinitis on the absorption of buserelin, measured as the serum luteinizing hormone (LH) response, has been investigated. A single dose of 200 µg buserelin was given to 24 healthy male volunteers after induction of experimental rhinitis with histamine and after use of a saline spray (placebo control). Except on one occasion, when the pump-spray apparently was incorrectly operated, serum LH concentration rose after buserelin. There was no difference in the LH response between histamine-induced rhinitis and saline controls. It was concluded that intranasal application of buserelin represents a reliable mode of application and that modification of the administration route or a change in the dosage schedule during naturally-occurring nasal inflammations, such as the common cold and allergic rhinitis, is unnecessary in patients undergoing chronic treatment with intranasal buserelin, e.g. for prostatic cancer, endometriosis, precocious puberty, and contraception.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-5195
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Cent-quarante patients opérés pour fracture de la hanche, par hémiarthroplastie ou par ostéosynthèse, ont été soumis la première semaine post-opératoire, à des mesures sériées du taux de C. réactive protéine (CRP) dans le sérum et de la vitesse de sédimentation (V.S). Nos mesures n'ont pas étés triées et ont inclus les patients présentant des complications mineures ou majeures pré- ou post-opératoires. Dans les cas sans complications, le taux de la V. S s'élève de façon variable durant la semaine, tandis que la CRP présente une courbe différente avec une augmentation rapide des valeurs de base jusqu'à un maximum, d'une valeur moyenne de 1452 nmol/l au deuxième jour post-opératoire. Dès lors, les taux régressent à une valeur moyenne de 352 nmol/l au septième jour. Du deuxième au cinquième jour les taux de CRP baissent de 61%, du deuxième au septième jour de 76%. Dans les cas de pneumonie post-opératoire et d'infection locale profonde, les taux de CRP sont restés significativement élevés, tandis que les infections mineures telles que simple cystite, bronchite ou infection superficielle de la plaie n'ont pas influencé les variations normales post-opératoires des taux de CRP. A l'inverse, les complications post-opératoires n'ont aucun effet sur la V. S durant la première semaine. Il semble donc que les mesures sériées de la CRP constituent un paramètre plus fiable que celles de la V. S dans le dépistage précoce des complications septiques majeures post-opératoires.
    Notes: Summary Serial measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR) were performed during the week after operation in 140 patients with hip fractures. There was no selection, and patients with minor or major complications before or after operation were included. In uncomplicated cases, the ESR was variably raised during the first week, whereas the CRP showed a distinct pattern with a rapid increase on the second day; it then decreased by the 7th day. In cases with early postoperative bronchopneumonia and deep wound infection, the CRP was high, but minor infections did not influence the usual levels. Complications had no effect on the ESR during the 1st week.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Cerebral ischemia ; CA-1 interneurons ; Hippocampus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The aim of this morphological study was to determine the vulnerability of hippocampal interneurons to ischemia in the adult rat. Two types of interneurons situated in the CA-1 stratum oriens were investigated, the larger basket cells close to stratum pyramidale and the smaller basket cells close to the alveus. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 20 min of transient cerebral ischemia by means of 4-vessel occlusion and perfusion fixed 1, 2, 4, or 21 days later. In both Golgi-impregnated and in routinely stained sections the pyramidal cells and interneurons in the hippocampal CA-1 region were examined and counted. The study clearly demonstrated the selective vulnerability of the CA-1 pyramidal cells, as no ischemic cell damage to or loss of interneurons was found.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1292-895X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract: We present a qualitative analysis of a generic model structure that can simulate the bursting and spiking dynamics of many biological cells. Four different scenarios for the emergence of bursting are described. In this connection a number of theorems are stated concerning the relation between the phase portraits of the fast subsystem and the global behavior of the full model. It is emphasized that the onset of bursting involves the formation of a homoclinic orbit that travels along the route of the bursting oscillations and, hence, cannot be explained in terms of bifurcations in the fast subsystem. In one of the scenarios, the bursting oscillations arise in a homoclinic bifurcation in which the one-dimensional (1D) stable manifold of a saddle point becomes attracting to its whole 2D unstable manifold. This type of homoclinic bifurcation, and the complex behavior that it can produce, have not previously been examined in detail. We derive a 2D flow-defined map for this situation and show how the map transforms a disk-shaped cross-section of the flow into an annulus. Preliminary investigations of the stable dynamics of this map show that it produces an interesting cascade of alternating pitchfork and boundary collision bifurcations.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Cerebral ischemia ; Hippocampus ; Entorhinal cortex ; CA-1 pyramidal cell protection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The excitatory (glutamatergic) innervation seems to determine a nerve cells vulnerability to complete, transient ischemia. Interruption of the excitatory afferents to the hippocampus by removal of the entorhinal cortex prior to ischemia allows examination of this hypothesis. Groups of adult male Wistar rats were subjected to 20 min of ischemia (fourvessel occlusion) 4 days following a sham procedure, unilateral or bilateral entorhinotomy. CA-1 pyramidal cell survival following ischemia was assessed by light microscopic examination (cell counts) 4 days after ischemia. Compared to control animals unilateral entorhinotomy protected 50% of the CA-1 pyramidal neurons ipsilateral to the lesion, whereas bilateral entorhinotomy resulted in 84% protection. The pathophysiology of ischemic brain damage is discussed, and it is suggested that the protection of CA-1 pyramidal neurons after entorhinotomy is due to interruption of the input to the dentate granule cells, which forms a link in the trisynaptic pathway from the entorhinal cortex to the CA-1.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary A strain of Streptococcus cremoris has been fermented on glucose at a fixed pH and temperature in a chemostat. A model for lactic acid production is suggested which fits the experimental data from the chemostat better than previously proposed models. The model is a modification of the original Luedeking-Piret expression including a term with negative substrate dependence.
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