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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: It is widely believed that the initial degradation of proteins contained in grazed forage is mediated by rumen micro-organisms, but the authors’ recent work suggests that the plant cells themselves contribute to their own demise. In the present study the responses of Lolium perenne leaves to the rumen environment were investigated by using an in vitro system which simulates the main stresses of the rumen but from which rumen micro-organisms were excluded. Degradation of leaf protein and the accumulation of amino acids in tissue and bathing medium occurred over a time-scale that is relevant to rumen function, and in a near 1 : 1 ratio. Significant loss of nuclear material was observed after 6 h incubation and chloroplasts became morphologically more spherical as the incubation progressed. In situ localization suggested that ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase was broken down within chloroplasts which from cytology were judged to be intact. We conclude from these data that plant metabolism may play a significant role in breaking down plant proteins within relatively intact organelles in the rumen. The determinations of chlorophyll content and cell viability revealed that the plant processes occurring in the simulated rumen were similar but not identical to those of natural senescence.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2020-10-19
    Description: Red algae, belonging to the phylum Rhodophyta, contain an abundance of useful chemicals including bioactive molecules and present opportunities for the production of different products through biorefinery cascades. The rhodophyte Palmaria palmata, commonly termed dulse or dillisk, grows predominantly on the northern coasts of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and is a well-known snack food. Due to its abundance, availability and cultivation capacity, P. palmata was selected for study as a potential candidate for a biorefinery process. In addition to studying juice and solid fractions of freshly harvested P. palmata, we have investigated the novel possibility of preserving algal biomass by ensilaging protocols similar to those employed for terrestrial forage crops. In the metabolite partitioning within the solid and liquid fractions following screw-pressing, the majority of the metabolites screened for—water soluble carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, lipids, pigments, phenolics and antioxidant activity—remained in the solid fraction, though at differing proportions depending on the metabolite, from 70.8% soluble amino acids to 98.2% chlorophyll a and 98.1% total carotenoids. For the ensiling study, screw-pressed P. palmata, with comparative wilted and chopped, and chopped only samples, were ensiled at scale with and without Safesil silage additive. All samples were successfully ensiled after 90 days, with screw-pressing giving lower or equal pH before and after ensiling compared with the other preparations. Of particular note was the effluent volumes generated during ensiling: 26–49% of the fresh weight, containing 16–34% of the silage dry matter. This may be of advantage depending on the final use of the biomass.
    Print ISSN: 0921-8971
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-5176
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Springer
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