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  • 1
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VIVO ; MODELS ; DISEASE ; MICE ; C-KIT ; DEFICIENCY ; MURINE MODEL ; CARBOXYPEPTIDASE-A ; W-SH
    Abstract: Immunological functions of mast cells remain poorly understood. Studies in Kit mutant mice suggest key roles for mast cells in certain antibody- and T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. However, Kit mutations affect multiple cell types of both immune and nonimmune origin. Here, we show that targeted insertion of Cre-recombinase into the mast cell carboxypeptidase A3 locus deleted mast cells in connective and mucosal tissues by a genotoxic Trp53-dependent mechanism. Cre-mediated mast cell eradication (Cre-Master) mice had, with the exception of a lack of mast cells and reduced basophils, a normal immune system. Cre-Master mice were refractory to IgE-mediated anaphylaxis, and this defect was rescued by mast cell reconstitution. This mast cell-deficient strain was fully susceptible to antibody-induced autoimmune arthritis and to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Differences comparing Kit mutant mast cell deficiency models to selectively mast cell-deficient mice call for a systematic re-evaluation of immunological functions of mast cells beyond allergy.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22101159
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Respiratory viral infections are a leading cause of the hospitalization of asthmatics, however, the cellular immunological interactions which underlie these two diseases remain elusive.Objective We sought to characterize the effect influenza viral infection has on allergic airway inflammation and to identify the cellular pathways involved.Methods We have used an ovalbumin (OVA) model of allergic airway inflammation, which involves sensitization of animals with OVA adsorbed in alum adjuvant followed by an intranasal challenge with OVA in phosphate-buffered saline. To study T cell recruitment into the lung, we adoptively transferred in vitro activated T cell receptor-transgenic T cells, which were subsequently identified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. In addition, to study in vivo dendritic cell (DC) migration, we administered fluorescently labelled dextran and identified DCs that had phagocytosed it by FACS analysis.Results We found that different stages of influenza infection had contrasting effects upon the outcome of OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation. The allergic response against OVA was exacerbated during the acute stage of influenza infection; however, mice were protected against the development of airway eosinophilia at late time-points following infection. We investigated the mechanisms responsible for the virus-induced exacerbation and found that the response was partially independent of IL-4 and that there was increased delivery of inhaled allergens to the draining lymph node during the acute stage of the infection. In addition, virus-induced inflammation in the lung and draining lymph node resulted in the non-specific recruitment of circulating allergen-specific effector/memory cells.Conclusion In addition to virus-mediated damage to the lung and airways, influenza viral infection can also enhance unrelated local allergic responses.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background and objectives Lung remodelling is a recognized feature of chronic asthma. In the present study, we have used IL-5-deficient mice to evaluate the role of this cytokine and eosinophilic inflammation in the initial stages of the structural changes occurring in the lung after antigen challenge.Methods Ovalbumin-sensitized wild type and IL-5-deficient mice were daily challenged for 5 consecutive days and killed 3 or 7 days after the last challenge to study the inflammatory and remodelling events, respectively.Results Wild type mice challenged with ovalbumin exhibited an accumulation of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, associated with a production of BAL cellular fibronectin. Histological analysis also revealed an antigen-specific increase in epithelial and alveolar cell proliferation together with an increase in mucus producing epithelial cells. Eosinophilic infiltration and the associated lung remodelling were totally abrogated in IL-5-deficient mice. In wild type mice, treated intranasally with 1 µg of murine IL-5 for 5 consecutive days, no BAL eosinophilia and structural changes of the lungs could be observed.Conclusion Our results demonstrate that eosinophil accumulation, but not IL-5 alone, plays a central role in the initial stages of the lung remodelling process and suggests that therapies directed at inhibiting eosinophilic inflammation may be beneficial in treating chronic asthma.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0079-6565
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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