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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Objectives Develop predictive models for a paediatric population that provide information for paediatricians and health authorities to identify children at risk of hospitalisation for conditions that may be impacted through improved patient care. Design Retrospective healthcare utilisation analysis with multivariable logistic regression models. Data Demographic information linked with utilisation of health services in the years 2006–2014 was used to predict risk of hospitalisation or death in 2015 using a longitudinal administrative database of 527 458 children aged 1–13 years residing in the Regione Emilia-Romagna (RER), Italy, in 2014. Outcome measures Models designed to predict risk of hospitalisation or death in 2015 for problems that are potentially avoidable were developed and evaluated using the C-statistic, for calibration to assess performance across levels of predicted risk, and in terms of their sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value. Results Of the 527 458 children residing in RER in 2014, 6391 children (1.21%) were hospitalised for selected conditions or died in 2015. 49 486 children (9.4%) of the population were classified in the ‘At Higher Risk’ group using a threshold of predicted risk 〉2.5%. The observed risk of hospitalisation (5%) for the ‘At Higher Risk’ group was more than four times higher than the overall population. We observed a C-statistic of 0.78 indicating good model performance. The model was well calibrated across categories of predicted risk. Conclusions It is feasible to develop a population-based model using a longitudinal administrative database that identifies the risk of hospitalisation for a paediatric population. The results of this model, along with profiles of children identified as high risk, are being provided to the paediatricians and other healthcare professionals providing care to this population to aid in planning for care management and interventions that may reduce their patients’ likelihood of a preventable, high-cost hospitalisation.
    Keywords: Open access, Health services research
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-05-15
    Description: Author Correction: Magnetism and high magnetic-field-induced stability of alloy carbides in Fe-based materials Author Correction: Magnetism and high magnetic-field-induced stability of alloy carbides in Fe-based materials, Published online: 15 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41598-018-25978-5 Author Correction: Magnetism and high magnetic-field-induced stability of alloy carbides in Fe-based materials
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-01-28
    Description: Objectives Workplace violence is relatively frequent among medical professionals who work in otorhinolaryngology units. This phenomenon reduces the quality of provided medical care and increases the incidence of depressive symptoms among physicians and nurses, seriously affecting their job satisfaction and work efficiency with a negative attitude towards providing treatment. Few existing studies have assessed workplace-violence-related factors associated with depressive symptoms among otorhinolaryngology physicians and nurses. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in grade A tertiary hospitals of Heilongjiang province in Northern China, to evaluate the occurrence and level of depressive symptoms among otorhinolaryngology physicians and nurses and to analyse the relationship between them and workplace-violence-related risk factors and demographic variables. Results Of all our participating professionals, (379 otorhinolaryngologists and 273 nurses), 57.2% were found to have depressive symptoms, whereas, of the respondents who had suffered from physical violence, 71.25% had depressive symptoms. Professionals with less than 1 year of experience, as well as professionals who more frequently worked alone, were more likely to suffer from depressive symptoms than their colleagues. Conclusions This research addresses an emerging issue of clinical practice, and its results differ from those of previous studies; specifically, it indicates that the frequency of depressive symptoms among otorhinolaryngology physicians and nurses may be influenced by physical violence, the number of coworkers they have for more than half of their working hours and other workplace-violence-related factors. To reduce the depressive symptoms caused by workplace violence and improve the quality of medical services, medical institutions should implement effective measures to prevent the occurrence of physical violence, strengthen team cooperation ability and increase peer support.
    Keywords: Open access, Public health
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 4
    Keywords: ESTRADIOL ; SERUM ; TWINS ; PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; SEX-HORMONE LEVELS ; STEROID-HORMONES ; LOCI ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION
    Abstract: Introduction: We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age 〈= 50 years. Methods: We further investigated the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk in a large case control study of 47,346 cases and 47,570 controls from 52 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Genotyping of rs10235235 was conducted using a custom Illumina Infinium array. Stratified analyses were conducted to determine whether this association was modified by age at diagnosis, ethnicity, age at menarche or tumor characteristics. Results: We confirmed the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk for women of European ancestry but found no evidence that this association differed with age at diagnosis. Heterozygote and homozygote odds ratios (ORs) were OR = 0.98 (95% CI 0.94, 1.01; P = 0.2) and OR = 0.80 (95% CI 0.69, 0.93; P = 0.004), respectively (P-trend = 0.02). There was no evidence of effect modification by tumor characteristics. rs10235235 was, however, associated with age at menarche in controls (P-trend = 0.005) but not cases (P-trend = 0.97). Consequently the association between rs10235235 and breast cancer risk differed according to age at menarche (P-het = 0.02); the rare allele of rs10235235 was associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk for women who had their menarche age 〉= 15 years (ORhet = 0.84, 95% CI 0.75, 0.94; ORhom = 0.81, 95% CI 0.51, 1.30; P-trend = 0.002) but not for those who had their menarche age 〈= 11 years (ORhet = 1.06, 95% CI 0.95, 1.19, ORhom = 1.07, 95% CI 0.67, 1.72; P-trend = 0.29). Conclusions: To our knowledge rs10235235 is the first single nucleotide polymorphism to be associated with both breast cancer risk and age at menarche consistent with the well-documented association between later age at menarche and a reduction in breast cancer risk. These associations are likely mediated via an effect on circulating hormone levels.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24887515
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  • 5
    Abstract: Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have likely uncovered all common variants at the GWAS significance level. Additional variants within the suggestive range (0.0001〉 P 〉 5x10(-8)) are, however, still of interest for identifying causal associations. This analysis aimed to apply novel variant prioritization approaches to identify additional lung cancer variants that may not reach the GWAS level. Effects were combined across studies with a total of 33456 controls and 6756 adenocarcinoma (AC; 13 studies), 5061 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; 12 studies) and 2216 small cell lung cancer cases (9 studies). Based on prior information such as variant physical properties and functional significance, we applied stratified false discovery rates, hierarchical modeling and Bayesian false discovery probabilities for variant prioritization. We conducted a fine mapping analysis as validation of our methods by examining top-ranking novel variants in six independent populations with a total of 3128 cases and 2966 controls. Three novel loci in the suggestive range were identified based on our Bayesian framework analyses: KCNIP4 at 4p15.2 (rs6448050, P = 4.6x10(-7)) and MTMR2 at 11q21 (rs10501831, P = 3.1x10(-6)) with SCC, as well as GAREM at 18q12.1 (rs11662168, P = 3.4x10(-7)) with AC. Use of our prioritization methods validated two of the top three loci associated with SCC (P = 1.05x10(-4) for KCNIP4, represented by rs9799795) and AC (P = 2.16x10(-4) for GAREM, represented by rs3786309) in the independent fine mapping populations. This study highlights the utility of using prior functional data for sequence variants in prioritization analyses to search for robust signals in the suggestive range.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26363033
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Overexpression or activation of AKT is very well known to control cell growth, survival, and gene expression in solid tumors. Oridonin, an inflammatory medical and diterpenoid compound isolated from Rabdosia rubescens , has exhibited various pharmacologic and physiologic properties, including antitumor, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we demonstrated that oridonin is an inhibitor of AKT and suppresses proliferation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in vitro and in vivo . The role of AKT in ESCC was studied using immuno-histochemical analysis of a tumor microarray, the effect of AKT knockdown on cell growth, and treatment of cells with MK-2206, an AKT inhibitor. Oridonin blocked AKT kinase activity and interacted with the ATP-binding pocket of AKT. It inhibited growth of KYSE70, KYSE410, and KYSE450 esophageal cancer cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Oridonin induced arrest of cells in the G 2 –M cell-cycle phase, stimulated apoptosis, and increased expression of apoptotic biomarkers, including cleaved PARP, caspase-3, caspase-7, and Bim s in ESCC cell lines. Mechanistically, we found that oridonin diminished the phosphorylation and activation of AKT signaling. Furthermore, a combination of oridonin and 5-fluorouracil or cisplatin (clinical chemotherapeutic agents) enhanced the inhibition of ESCC cell growth. The effects of oridonin were verified in patient-derived xenograft tumors expressing high levels of AKT. In summary, our results indicate that oridonin acts as an AKT inhibitor to suppress the growth of ESCC by attenuating AKT signaling. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(7); 1540–53. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1535-7163
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-8514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: In this work, we study the microwave field driven domain wall (DW) motion in an antiferromagnetic nanowire, using the numerical calculations based on a classical Heisenberg spin model with the biaxial magnetic anisotropy. We show that a proper combination of a static magnetic field plus an oscillating field perpendicular to the nanowire axis is sufficient to drive the DW propagation along the nanowire. More importantly, the drift velocity at the resonance frequency is comparable to that induced by temperature gradients, suggesting that microwave field can be a very promising tool to control DW motions in antiferromagnetic nanostructures. The dependences of resonance frequency and drift velocity on the static and oscillating fields, the axial anisotropy, and the damping constant are discussed in details. Furthermore, the optimal orientations of the field are also numerically determined and explained. This work provides useful information for the spin dynamics in antiferromagnetic...
    Electronic ISSN: 1367-2630
    Topics: Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-12-14
    Keywords: Multiple Myeloma, Lymphoid Neoplasia
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-01-21
    Description: When light illuminates a rough metallic surface, hotspots can appear, where the light is concentrated on the nanometre scale, producing an intense electromagnetic field. This phenomenon, called the surface enhancement effect, has a broad range of potential applications, such as the detection of weak chemical signals. Hotspots are believed to be associated with localized electromagnetic modes, caused by the randomness of the surface texture. Probing the electromagnetic field of the hotspots would offer much insight towards uncovering the mechanism generating the enhancement; however, it requires a spatial resolution of 1-2 nm, which has been a long-standing challenge in optics. The resolution of an optical microscope is limited to about half the wavelength of the incident light, approximately 200-300 nm. Although current state-of-the-art techniques, including near-field scanning optical microscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, cathode luminescence imaging and two-photon photoemission imaging have subwavelength resolution, they either introduce a non-negligible amount of perturbation, complicating interpretation of the data, or operate only in a vacuum. As a result, after more than 30 years since the discovery of the surface enhancement effect, how the local field is distributed remains unknown. Here we present a technique that uses Brownian motion of single molecules to probe the local field. It enables two-dimensional imaging of the fluorescence enhancement profile of single hotspots on the surfaces of aluminium thin films and silver nanoparticle clusters, with accuracy down to 1.2 nm. Strong fluorescence enhancements, up to 54 and 136 times respectively, are observed in those two systems. This strong enhancement indicates that the local field, which decays exponentially from the peak of a hotspot, dominates the fluorescence enhancement profile.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cang, Hu -- Labno, Anna -- Lu, Changgui -- Yin, Xiaobo -- Liu, Ming -- Gladden, Christopher -- Liu, Yongmin -- Zhang, Xiang -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jan 20;469(7330):385-8. doi: 10.1038/nature09698.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21248848" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aluminum/chemistry ; *Electromagnetic Fields ; Fluorescence ; Fluorescent Dyes/analysis/chemistry ; *Hot Temperature ; Luminescent Measurements/*methods ; Metal Nanoparticles/*chemistry ; Microscopy, Fluorescence/*methods ; Molecular Imaging/*methods ; Motion ; Quartz ; Silver/chemistry ; Surface Properties
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-05-10
    Description: Integrated optical modulators with high modulation speed, small footprint and large optical bandwidth are poised to be the enabling devices for on-chip optical interconnects. Semiconductor modulators have therefore been heavily researched over the past few years. However, the device footprint of silicon-based modulators is of the order of millimetres, owing to its weak electro-optical properties. Germanium and compound semiconductors, on the other hand, face the major challenge of integration with existing silicon electronics and photonics platforms. Integrating silicon modulators with high-quality-factor optical resonators increases the modulation strength, but these devices suffer from intrinsic narrow bandwidth and require sophisticated optical design; they also have stringent fabrication requirements and limited temperature tolerances. Finding a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible material with adequate modulation speed and strength has therefore become a task of not only scientific interest, but also industrial importance. Here we experimentally demonstrate a broadband, high-speed, waveguide-integrated electroabsorption modulator based on monolayer graphene. By electrically tuning the Fermi level of the graphene sheet, we demonstrate modulation of the guided light at frequencies over 1 GHz, together with a broad operation spectrum that ranges from 1.35 to 1.6 microm under ambient conditions. The high modulation efficiency of graphene results in an active device area of merely 25 microm(2), which is among the smallest to date. This graphene-based optical modulation mechanism, with combined advantages of compact footprint, low operation voltage and ultrafast modulation speed across a broad range of wavelengths, can enable novel architectures for on-chip optical communications.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Liu, Ming -- Yin, Xiaobo -- Ulin-Avila, Erick -- Geng, Baisong -- Zentgraf, Thomas -- Ju, Long -- Wang, Feng -- Zhang, Xiang -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jun 2;474(7349):64-7. doi: 10.1038/nature10067. Epub 2011 May 8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉NSF Nano-scale Science and Engineering Center, 3112 Etcheverry Hall, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21552277" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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