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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-12-14
    Description: Major depression is characterized by diverse debilitating symptoms that include hopelessness and anhedonia. Dopamine neurons involved in reward and motivation are among many neural populations that have been hypothesized to be relevant, and certain antidepressant treatments, including medications and brain stimulation therapies, can influence the complex dopamine system. Until now it has not been possible to test this hypothesis directly, even in animal models, as existing therapeutic interventions are unable to specifically target dopamine neurons. Here we investigated directly the causal contributions of defined dopamine neurons to multidimensional depression-like phenotypes induced by chronic mild stress, by integrating behavioural, pharmacological, optogenetic and electrophysiological methods in freely moving rodents. We found that bidirectional control (inhibition or excitation) of specified midbrain dopamine neurons immediately and bidirectionally modulates (induces or relieves) multiple independent depression symptoms caused by chronic stress. By probing the circuit implementation of these effects, we observed that optogenetic recruitment of these dopamine neurons potently alters the neural encoding of depression-related behaviours in the downstream nucleus accumbens of freely moving rodents, suggesting that processes affecting depression symptoms may involve alterations in the neural encoding of action in limbic circuitry.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4160519/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4160519/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tye, Kay M -- Mirzabekov, Julie J -- Warden, Melissa R -- Ferenczi, Emily A -- Tsai, Hsing-Chen -- Finkelstein, Joel -- Kim, Sung-Yon -- Adhikari, Avishek -- Thompson, Kimberly R -- Andalman, Aaron S -- Gunaydin, Lisa A -- Witten, Ilana B -- Deisseroth, Karl -- DP2 DA035149/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- F32 MH880102/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jan 24;493(7433):537-41. doi: 10.1038/nature11740. Epub 2012 Dec 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. kaytye@mit.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23235822" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Depression/chemically induced/*physiopathology ; Dopamine/metabolism ; Dopaminergic Neurons/drug effects/*metabolism/radiation effects ; Female ; Male ; Mice ; Models, Neurological ; Nucleus Accumbens/metabolism ; Optogenetics ; Phenotype ; Rats ; Rats, Long-Evans ; Stress, Psychological/physiopathology ; Time Factors ; Ventral Tegmental Area/cytology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-03-22
    Description: Behavioural states in mammals, such as the anxious state, are characterized by several features that are coordinately regulated by diverse nervous system outputs, ranging from behavioural choice patterns to changes in physiology (in anxiety, exemplified respectively by risk-avoidance and respiratory rate alterations). Here we investigate if and how defined neural projections arising from a single coordinating brain region in mice could mediate diverse features of anxiety. Integrating behavioural assays, in vivo and in vitro electrophysiology, respiratory physiology and optogenetics, we identify a surprising new role for the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in the coordinated modulation of diverse anxiety features. First, two BNST subregions were unexpectedly found to exert opposite effects on the anxious state: oval BNST activity promoted several independent anxious state features, whereas anterodorsal BNST-associated activity exerted anxiolytic influence for the same features. Notably, we found that three distinct anterodorsal BNST efferent projections-to the lateral hypothalamus, parabrachial nucleus and ventral tegmental area-each implemented an independent feature of anxiolysis: reduced risk-avoidance, reduced respiratory rate, and increased positive valence, respectively. Furthermore, selective inhibition of corresponding circuit elements in freely moving mice showed opposing behavioural effects compared with excitation, and in vivo recordings during free behaviour showed native spiking patterns in anterodorsal BNST neurons that differentiated safe and anxiogenic environments. These results demonstrate that distinct BNST subregions exert opposite effects in modulating anxiety, establish separable anxiolytic roles for different anterodorsal BNST projections, and illustrate circuit mechanisms underlying selection of features for the assembly of the anxious state.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Sung-Yon -- Adhikari, Avishek -- Lee, Soo Yeun -- Marshel, James H -- Kim, Christina K -- Mallory, Caitlin S -- Lo, Maisie -- Pak, Sally -- Mattis, Joanna -- Lim, Byung Kook -- Malenka, Robert C -- Warden, Melissa R -- Neve, Rachael -- Tye, Kay M -- Deisseroth, Karl -- F32 MH088010/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- T32 MH020002/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Apr 11;496(7444):219-23. doi: 10.1038/nature12018. Epub 2013 Mar 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23515158" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Animals ; Anxiety/pathology/*physiopathology ; Electrophysiology ; Mice ; Neural Pathways/*physiology ; Optogenetics ; Septal Nuclei/anatomy & histology/cytology/*physiopathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-11-20
    Description: The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to participate in high-level control of the generation of behaviours (including the decision to execute actions); indeed, imaging and lesion studies in human beings have revealed that PFC dysfunction can lead to either impulsive states with increased tendency to initiate action, or to amotivational states characterized by symptoms such as reduced activity, hopelessness and depressed mood. Considering the opposite valence of these two phenotypes as well as the broad complexity of other tasks attributed to PFC, we sought to elucidate the PFC circuitry that favours effortful behavioural responses to challenging situations. Here we develop and use a quantitative method for the continuous assessment and control of active response to a behavioural challenge, synchronized with single-unit electrophysiology and optogenetics in freely moving rats. In recording from the medial PFC (mPFC), we observed that many neurons were not simply movement-related in their spike-firing patterns but instead were selectively modulated from moment to moment, according to the animal's decision to act in a challenging situation. Surprisingly, we next found that direct activation of principal neurons in the mPFC had no detectable causal effect on this behaviour. We tested whether this behaviour could be causally mediated by only a subclass of mPFC cells defined by specific downstream wiring. Indeed, by leveraging optogenetic projection-targeting to control cells with specific efferent wiring patterns, we found that selective activation of those mPFC cells projecting to the brainstem dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), a serotonergic nucleus implicated in major depressive disorder, induced a profound, rapid and reversible effect on selection of the active behavioural state. These results may be of importance in understanding the neural circuitry underlying normal and pathological patterns of action selection and motivation in behaviour.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Warden, Melissa R -- Selimbeyoglu, Aslihan -- Mirzabekov, Julie J -- Lo, Maisie -- Thompson, Kimberly R -- Kim, Sung-Yon -- Adhikari, Avishek -- Tye, Kay M -- Frank, Loren M -- Deisseroth, Karl -- 1F32MH088010-01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- F32 MH088010/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Dec 20;492(7429):428-32. doi: 10.1038/nature11617.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. mwarden@stanford.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23160494" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Animals ; Axons/physiology ; Behavior, Animal/*physiology ; Depression/psychology ; Electrophysiology ; Locomotion/physiology ; Male ; Motivation/*physiology ; Neurons/*physiology ; Optogenetics ; Prefrontal Cortex/*physiology ; Raphe Nuclei/*physiology ; Rats ; Rats, Long-Evans ; Swimming/*physiology ; Synapses/physiology ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-05-21
    Description: Single-neuron activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is tuned to mixtures of multiple task-related aspects. Such mixed selectivity is highly heterogeneous, seemingly disordered and therefore difficult to interpret. We analysed the neural activity recorded in monkeys during an object sequence memory task to identify a role of mixed selectivity in subserving the cognitive functions ascribed to the PFC. We show that mixed selectivity neurons encode distributed information about all task-relevant aspects. Each aspect can be decoded from the population of neurons even when single-cell selectivity to that aspect is eliminated. Moreover, mixed selectivity offers a significant computational advantage over specialized responses in terms of the repertoire of input-output functions implementable by readout neurons. This advantage originates from the highly diverse nonlinear selectivity to mixtures of task-relevant variables, a signature of high-dimensional neural representations. Crucially, this dimensionality is predictive of animal behaviour as it collapses in error trials. Our findings recommend a shift of focus for future studies from neurons that have easily interpretable response tuning to the widely observed, but rarely analysed, mixed selectivity neurons.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4412347/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4412347/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rigotti, Mattia -- Barak, Omri -- Warden, Melissa R -- Wang, Xiao-Jing -- Daw, Nathaniel D -- Miller, Earl K -- Fusi, Stefano -- 5-R37-MH087027-04/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH091174/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R37 MH087027/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 May 30;497(7451):585-90. doi: 10.1038/nature12160. Epub 2013 May 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Theoretical Neuroscience, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23685452" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Behavior, Animal/physiology ; Cognition/*physiology ; Haplorhini/*physiology ; Memory/physiology ; *Models, Neurological ; Neurons/*physiology ; Prefrontal Cortex/*cytology/*physiology ; Single-Cell Analysis
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: Motivation for reward drives adaptive behaviors, whereas impairment of reward perception and experience (anhedonia) can contribute to psychiatric diseases, including depression and schizophrenia. We sought to test the hypothesis that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) controls interactions among specific subcortical regions that govern hedonic responses. By using optogenetic functional magnetic resonance imaging to locally manipulate but globally visualize neural activity in rats, we found that dopamine neuron stimulation drives striatal activity, whereas locally increased mPFC excitability reduces this striatal response and inhibits the behavioral drive for dopaminergic stimulation. This chronic mPFC overactivity also stably suppresses natural reward-motivated behaviors and induces specific new brainwide functional interactions, which predict the degree of anhedonia in individuals. These findings describe a mechanism by which mPFC modulates expression of reward-seeking behavior, by regulating the dynamical interactions between specific distant subcortical regions.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4772156/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4772156/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ferenczi, Emily A -- Zalocusky, Kelly A -- Liston, Conor -- Grosenick, Logan -- Warden, Melissa R -- Amatya, Debha -- Katovich, Kiefer -- Mehta, Hershel -- Patenaude, Brian -- Ramakrishnan, Charu -- Kalanithi, Paul -- Etkin, Amit -- Knutson, Brian -- Glover, Gary H -- Deisseroth, Karl -- 1F31MH105151_01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- P41 EB015891/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- R00 MH097822/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 1;351(6268):aac9698. doi: 10.1126/science.aac9698.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Neurosciences Program, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Brain Mind Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. ; Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA. ; Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA. deissero@stanford.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26722001" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anhedonia/*physiology ; Animals ; Brain Mapping ; Corpus Striatum/cytology/drug effects/*physiology ; Depressive Disorder/physiopathology ; Dopamine/pharmacology ; Dopaminergic Neurons/drug effects/*physiology ; Female ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Male ; Mesencephalon/cytology/drug effects/physiology ; *Motivation ; Nerve Net/physiology ; Oxygen/blood ; Prefrontal Cortex/cytology/drug effects/*physiology ; Rats ; Rats, Inbred LEC ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; *Reward ; Schizophrenia/physiopathology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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