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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-03-29
    Description: Enhancers control the correct temporal and cell-type-specific activation of gene expression in multicellular eukaryotes. Knowing their properties, regulatory activity and targets is crucial to understand the regulation of differentiation and homeostasis. Here we use the FANTOM5 panel of samples, covering the majority of human tissues and cell types, to produce an atlas of active, in vivo-transcribed enhancers. We show that enhancers share properties with CpG-poor messenger RNA promoters but produce bidirectional, exosome-sensitive, relatively short unspliced RNAs, the generation of which is strongly related to enhancer activity. The atlas is used to compare regulatory programs between different cells at unprecedented depth, to identify disease-associated regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms, and to classify cell-type-specific and ubiquitous enhancers. We further explore the utility of enhancer redundancy, which explains gene expression strength rather than expression patterns. The online FANTOM5 enhancer atlas represents a unique resource for studies on cell-type-specific enhancers and gene regulation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Andersson, Robin -- Gebhard, Claudia -- Miguel-Escalada, Irene -- Hoof, Ilka -- Bornholdt, Jette -- Boyd, Mette -- Chen, Yun -- Zhao, Xiaobei -- Schmidl, Christian -- Suzuki, Takahiro -- Ntini, Evgenia -- Arner, Erik -- Valen, Eivind -- Li, Kang -- Schwarzfischer, Lucia -- Glatz, Dagmar -- Raithel, Johanna -- Lilje, Berit -- Rapin, Nicolas -- Bagger, Frederik Otzen -- Jorgensen, Mette -- Andersen, Peter Refsing -- Bertin, Nicolas -- Rackham, Owen -- Burroughs, A Maxwell -- Baillie, J Kenneth -- Ishizu, Yuri -- Shimizu, Yuri -- Furuhata, Erina -- Maeda, Shiori -- Negishi, Yutaka -- Mungall, Christopher J -- Meehan, Terrence F -- Lassmann, Timo -- Itoh, Masayoshi -- Kawaji, Hideya -- Kondo, Naoto -- Kawai, Jun -- Lennartsson, Andreas -- Daub, Carsten O -- Heutink, Peter -- Hume, David A -- Jensen, Torben Heick -- Suzuki, Harukazu -- Hayashizaki, Yoshihide -- Muller, Ferenc -- FANTOM Consortium -- Forrest, Alistair R R -- Carninci, Piero -- Rehli, Michael -- Sandelin, Albin -- MC_PC_U127597124/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UP_1102/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- R01 DE022969/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Mar 27;507(7493):455-61. doi: 10.1038/nature12787.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] The Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biology & Biotech Research and Innovation Centre, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloes Vej 5, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark [2]. ; 1] Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg, Germany [2] Regensburg Centre for Interventional Immunology (RCI), D-93042 Regensburg, Germany [3]. ; School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. ; The Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biology & Biotech Research and Innovation Centre, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloes Vej 5, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark. ; 1] The Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biology & Biotech Research and Innovation Centre, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloes Vej 5, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark [2] Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg, Germany. ; 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies (Division of Genomic Technologies), RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan. ; Centre for mRNP Biogenesis and Metabolism, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, C.F. Mollers Alle 3, Building 1130, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark. ; 1] The Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biology & Biotech Research and Innovation Centre, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloes Vej 5, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark [2] Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; 1] The Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biology & Biotech Research and Innovation Centre, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloes Vej 5, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark [2] The Finsen Laboratory, Rigshospitalet and Danish Stem Cell Centre (DanStem), University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloes Vej 5, DK-2200, Denmark. ; Roslin Institute, Edinburgh University, Easter Bush, Midlothian, Edinburgh EH25 9RG, UK. ; Genomics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road MS 64-121, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; EMBL Outstation - Hinxton, European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. ; 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies (Division of Genomic Technologies), RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [3] RIKEN Preventive Medicine and Diagnosis Innovation Program, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan. ; 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Preventive Medicine and Diagnosis Innovation Program, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan. ; Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Halsovagen 7, SE-4183 Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden. ; 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies (Division of Genomic Technologies), RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [3] Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Halsovagen 7, SE-4183 Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden. ; Department of Clinical Genetics, VU University Medical Center, van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands. ; 1] Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg, Germany [2] Regensburg Centre for Interventional Immunology (RCI), D-93042 Regensburg, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24670763" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Atlases as Topic ; Cell Line ; Cells, Cultured ; Cluster Analysis ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/*genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation/*genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; *Molecular Sequence Annotation ; *Organ Specificity ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis/genetics ; Transcription Initiation Site ; Transcription Initiation, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-03-29
    Description: Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal. Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene expression across the human body. We find that few genes are truly 'housekeeping', whereas many mammalian promoters are composite entities composed of several closely separated TSSs, with independent cell-type-specific expression profiles. TSSs specific to different cell types evolve at different rates, whereas promoters of broadly expressed genes are the most conserved. Promoter-based expression analysis reveals key transcription factors defining cell states and links them to binding-site motifs. The functions of identified novel transcripts can be predicted by coexpression and sample ontology enrichment analyses. The functional annotation of the mammalian genome 5 (FANTOM5) project provides comprehensive expression profiles and functional annotation of mammalian cell-type-specific transcriptomes with wide applications in biomedical research.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4529748/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4529748/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉FANTOM Consortium and the RIKEN PMI and CLST (DGT) -- Forrest, Alistair R R -- Kawaji, Hideya -- Rehli, Michael -- Baillie, J Kenneth -- de Hoon, Michiel J L -- Haberle, Vanja -- Lassmann, Timo -- Kulakovskiy, Ivan V -- Lizio, Marina -- Itoh, Masayoshi -- Andersson, Robin -- Mungall, Christopher J -- Meehan, Terrence F -- Schmeier, Sebastian -- Bertin, Nicolas -- Jorgensen, Mette -- Dimont, Emmanuel -- Arner, Erik -- Schmidl, Christian -- Schaefer, Ulf -- Medvedeva, Yulia A -- Plessy, Charles -- Vitezic, Morana -- Severin, Jessica -- Semple, Colin A -- Ishizu, Yuri -- Young, Robert S -- Francescatto, Margherita -- Alam, Intikhab -- Albanese, Davide -- Altschuler, Gabriel M -- Arakawa, Takahiro -- Archer, John A C -- Arner, Peter -- Babina, Magda -- Rennie, Sarah -- Balwierz, Piotr J -- Beckhouse, Anthony G -- Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati -- Blake, Judith A -- Blumenthal, Antje -- Bodega, Beatrice -- Bonetti, Alessandro -- Briggs, James -- Brombacher, Frank -- Burroughs, A Maxwell -- Califano, Andrea -- Cannistraci, Carlo V -- Carbajo, Daniel -- Chen, Yun -- Chierici, Marco -- Ciani, Yari -- Clevers, Hans C -- Dalla, Emiliano -- Davis, Carrie A -- Detmar, Michael -- Diehl, Alexander D -- Dohi, Taeko -- Drablos, Finn -- Edge, Albert S B -- Edinger, Matthias -- Ekwall, Karl -- Endoh, Mitsuhiro -- Enomoto, Hideki -- Fagiolini, Michela -- Fairbairn, Lynsey -- Fang, Hai -- Farach-Carson, Mary C -- Faulkner, Geoffrey J -- Favorov, Alexander V -- Fisher, Malcolm E -- Frith, Martin C -- Fujita, Rie -- Fukuda, Shiro -- Furlanello, Cesare -- Furino, Masaaki -- Furusawa, Jun-ichi -- Geijtenbeek, Teunis B -- Gibson, Andrew P -- Gingeras, Thomas -- Goldowitz, Daniel -- Gough, Julian -- Guhl, Sven -- Guler, Reto -- Gustincich, Stefano -- Ha, Thomas J -- Hamaguchi, Masahide -- Hara, Mitsuko -- Harbers, Matthias -- Harshbarger, Jayson -- Hasegawa, Akira -- Hasegawa, Yuki -- Hashimoto, Takehiro -- Herlyn, Meenhard -- Hitchens, Kelly J -- Ho Sui, Shannan J -- Hofmann, Oliver M -- Hoof, Ilka -- Hori, Furni -- Huminiecki, Lukasz -- Iida, Kei -- Ikawa, Tomokatsu -- Jankovic, Boris R -- Jia, Hui -- Joshi, Anagha -- Jurman, Giuseppe -- Kaczkowski, Bogumil -- Kai, Chieko -- Kaida, Kaoru -- Kaiho, Ai -- Kajiyama, Kazuhiro -- Kanamori-Katayama, Mutsumi -- Kasianov, Artem S -- Kasukawa, Takeya -- Katayama, Shintaro -- Kato, Sachi -- Kawaguchi, Shuji -- Kawamoto, Hiroshi -- Kawamura, Yuki I -- Kawashima, Tsugumi -- Kempfle, Judith S -- Kenna, Tony J -- Kere, Juha -- Khachigian, Levon M -- Kitamura, Toshio -- Klinken, S Peter -- Knox, Alan J -- Kojima, Miki -- Kojima, Soichi -- Kondo, Naoto -- Koseki, Haruhiko -- Koyasu, Shigeo -- Krampitz, Sarah -- Kubosaki, Atsutaka -- Kwon, Andrew T -- Laros, Jeroen F J -- Lee, Weonju -- Lennartsson, Andreas -- Li, Kang -- Lilje, Berit -- Lipovich, Leonard -- Mackay-Sim, Alan -- Manabe, Ri-ichiroh -- Mar, Jessica C -- Marchand, Benoit -- Mathelier, Anthony -- Mejhert, Niklas -- Meynert, Alison -- Mizuno, Yosuke -- de Lima Morais, David A -- Morikawa, Hiromasa -- Morimoto, Mitsuru -- Moro, Kazuyo -- Motakis, Efthymios -- Motohashi, Hozumi -- Mummery, Christine L -- Murata, Mitsuyoshi -- Nagao-Sato, Sayaka -- Nakachi, Yutaka -- Nakahara, Fumio -- Nakamura, Toshiyuki -- Nakamura, Yukio -- Nakazato, Kenichi -- van Nimwegen, Erik -- Ninomiya, Noriko -- Nishiyori, Hiromi -- Noma, Shohei -- Noazaki, Tadasuke -- Ogishima, Soichi -- Ohkura, Naganari -- Ohimiya, Hiroko -- Ohno, Hiroshi -- Ohshima, Mitsuhiro -- Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko -- Okazaki, Yasushi -- Orlando, Valerio -- Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A -- Pain, Arnab -- Passier, Robert -- Patrikakis, Margaret -- Persson, Helena -- Piazza, Silvano -- Prendergast, James G D -- Rackham, Owen J L -- Ramilowski, Jordan A -- Rashid, Mamoon -- Ravasi, Timothy -- Rizzu, Patrizia -- Roncador, Marco -- Roy, Sugata -- Rye, Morten B -- Saijyo, Eri -- Sajantila, Antti -- Saka, Akiko -- Sakaguchi, Shimon -- Sakai, Mizuho -- Sato, Hiroki -- Savvi, Suzana -- Saxena, Alka -- Schneider, Claudio -- Schultes, Erik A -- Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula G -- Schwegmann, Anita -- Sengstag, Thierry -- Sheng, Guojun -- Shimoji, Hisashi -- Shimoni, Yishai -- Shin, Jay W -- Simon, Christophe -- Sugiyama, Daisuke -- Sugiyama, Takaai -- Suzuki, Masanori -- Suzuki, Naoko -- Swoboda, Rolf K -- 't Hoen, Peter A C -- Tagami, Michihira -- Takahashi, Naoko -- Takai, Jun -- Tanaka, Hiroshi -- Tatsukawa, Hideki -- Tatum, Zuotian -- Thompson, Mark -- Toyodo, Hiroo -- Toyoda, Tetsuro -- Valen, Elvind -- van de Wetering, Marc -- van den Berg, Linda M -- Verado, Roberto -- Vijayan, Dipti -- Vorontsov, Ilya E -- Wasserman, Wyeth W -- Watanabe, Shoko -- Wells, Christine A -- Winteringham, Louise N -- Wolvetang, Ernst -- Wood, Emily J -- Yamaguchi, Yoko -- Yamamoto, Masayuki -- Yoneda, Misako -- Yonekura, Yohei -- Yoshida, Shigehiro -- Zabierowski, Susan E -- Zhang, Peter G -- Zhao, Xiaobei -- Zucchelli, Silvia -- Summers, Kim M -- Suzuki, Harukazu -- Daub, Carsten O -- Kawai, Jun -- Heutink, Peter -- Hide, Winston -- Freeman, Tom C -- Lenhard, Boris -- Bajic, Vladimir B -- Taylor, Martin S -- Makeev, Vsevolod J -- Sandelin, Albin -- Hume, David A -- Carninci, Piero -- Hayashizaki, Yoshihide -- BB/F003722/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/G022771/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/I001107/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_PC_U127597124/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UP_1102/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- R01 DE022969/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084875/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Mar 27;507(7493):462-70. doi: 10.1038/nature13182.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24670764" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Atlases as Topic ; Cell Line ; Cells, Cultured ; Cluster Analysis ; Conserved Sequence/genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation/genetics ; Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics ; Genes, Essential/genetics ; Genome/genetics ; Humans ; Mice ; *Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Open Reading Frames/genetics ; Organ Specificity ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/*genetics ; RNA, Messenger/analysis/genetics ; Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Transcription Initiation Site ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics ; Transcriptome/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; GENES ; GENOME ; DOWN-REGULATION ; LYMPHOMA ; TARGETS ; METHYLATION ; HUMAN CANCER-CELLS ; epigenetic regulation ; SIGNATURES
    Abstract: Dysregulated microRNA (miRNA) expression contributes to the pathogenesis of hematopoietic malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, an understanding of the mechanisms that cause aberrant miRNA transcriptional control is lacking. In this study, we comprehensively investigated the role and extent of miRNA epigenetic regulation in CLL. Genome-wide profiling conducted on 24 CLL and 10 healthy B cell samples revealed global DNA methylation patterns upstream of miRNA sequences that distinguished malignant from healthy cells and identified putative miRNA promoters. Integration of DNA methylation and miRNA promoter data led to the identification of 128 recurrent miRNA targets for aberrant promoter DNA methylation. DNA hypomethylation accounted for more than 60% of all aberrant promoter-associated DNA methylation in CLL, and promoter DNA hypomethylation was restricted to well-defined regions. Individual hyper- and hypomethylated promoters allowed discrimination of CLL samples from healthy controls. Promoter DNA methylation patterns were confirmed in an independent patient cohort, with 11 miRNAs consistently showing an inverse correlation between DNA methylation status and expression level. Together, our findings characterize the role of epigenetic changes in the regulation of miRNA transcription and create a repository of disease-specific promoter regions that may provide additional insights into the pathogenesis of CLL. Cancer Res; 72(15); 3775-85. (c)2012 AACR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22710432
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  • 4
    Abstract: Normal DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification required for proper development. Aberrant DNA methylation, in contrast, is frequently observed in many different malignancies including leukemias and lymphomas. Global DNA methylation profiling addresses the methylated sequences (methylome) of patient genomes to identify disease-specific methylation patterns. Workload in methylome analyses can be considerably reduced by methylome enrichment using proteins or antibodies with high affinity to methylated DNA. Methyl-CpG Immunoprecipitation (MCIp) employs an immobilized recombinant human methyl-CpG binding domain protein 2, MBD2, which binds methylated CpGs in double-stranded DNA. Elution with increasing salt concentrations allows the fractionated enrichment of different degrees of methylation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23296965
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; proliferation ; PATHWAY ; BIOLOGY ; PROTEIN-KINASE ; genetics ; DNA methylation ; intraepithelial neoplasia ; ABERRANT METHYLATION ; CELL TRANSDIFFERENTIATION
    Abstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is usually incurable. Contrary to genetic mechanisms involved in PDAC pathogenesis, epigenetic alterations are ill defined. Here, we determine the contribution of epigenetically silenced genes to the development of PDAC. We analyzed enriched, highly methylated DNAs from PDACs, chronic pancreatitis (CP) and normal tissues using CpG island microarrays and identified WNK2 as a prominent candidate tumor suppressor gene being downregulated early in PDAC development. WNK2 was further investigated in tissue microarrays, methylation analysis of early pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), mouse models for PDAC and pancreatitis, re-expression studies after demethylation, and cell growth assays using WNK2 overexpression. Demethylation assays confirmed the link between methylation and expression. WNK2 hypermethylation was higher in tumor than in surrounding inflamed tissues and was observed in PanIN lesions as well as in a PDAC mouse model. WNK2 mRNA and protein expressions were lower in PDAC and CP compared with normal tissues both in patients and mouse models. Overexpression of WNK2 led to reduced cell growth, and WNK2 expression in tissues correlated negatively with pERK1/2 expression, a downstream target of WNK2 responsible for cell proliferation. Downregulation of WNK2 by promoter hypermethylation occurs early in PDAC pathogenesis and may support tumor cell growth via the ERK-MAPK pathway.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23912455
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; PATHWAY ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; PROGRESSION ; chemotherapy ; EMBRYONIC STEM-CELLS ; PROMOTER HYPERMETHYLATION ; AML ; TUMOR-NECROSIS
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Aberrant DNA methylation is frequently found in human malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). While most studies focus on later disease stages, the onset of aberrant DNA methylation events and their dynamics during leukemic progression are largely unknown. METHODS: We screened genome-wide for aberrant CpG island methylation in three disease stages of a murine AML model that is driven by hypomorphic expression of the hematopoietic transcription factor PU.1. DNA methylation levels of selected genes were correlated with methylation levels of CD34+ cells and lineage negative, CD127-, c-Kit+, Sca-1+ cells; common myeloid progenitors; granulocyte-macrophage progenitors; and megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors. RESULTS: We identified 1,184 hypermethylated array probes covering 762 associated genes in the preleukemic stage. During disease progression, the number of hypermethylated genes increased to 5,465 in the late leukemic disease stage. Using publicly available data, we found a significant enrichment of PU.1 binding sites in the preleukemic hypermethylated genes, suggesting that shortage of PU.1 makes PU.1 binding sites in the DNA accessible for aberrant methylation. Many known AML associated genes such as RUNX1 and HIC1 were found among the preleukemic hypermethylated genes. Nine novel hypermethylated genes, FZD5, FZD8, PRDM16, ROBO3, CXCL14, BCOR, ITPKA, HES6 and TAL1, the latter four being potential PU.1 targets, were confirmed to be hypermethylated in human normal karyotype AML patients, underscoring the relevance of the mouse model for human AML. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified early aberrantly methylated genes as potential contributors to onset and progression of AML.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24944583
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  • 7
  • 8
    Keywords: PATTERNS ; DNA methylation ; FREQUENT ; CARCINOMA IN-SITU ; CPG METHYLATION ; PROMOTER HYPERMETHYLATION ; MOLECULAR SUBTYPES ; RECEPTOR STATUS ; PROTOCADHERIN PCDH10 ; EARLY EVENT
    Abstract: Aberrant DNA methylation constitutes a well-established epigenetic marker for breast cancer. Changes in methylation early in cancer development may be clinically relevant for cancer detection and prognosis-based therapeutic decisions. In the present study, a combination of methyl-CpG immunoprecipitation (MCIp) and human CpG island (CGI) arrays was applied to compare genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in 10 low-grade in situ and invasive breast cancers against 10 normal breast samples. In total, 214 CGIs were found to be hypermethylated in 〉= 6 of 10 tumors. Functional term enrichment analyses revealed an overrepresentation of homeobox genes and genes involved in transcription and regulation of transcription. Significant hypermethylation of 11 selected genes in tumor vs. normal tissue was validated in two independent sample sets (45 tumors and 11 controls, 43 tumors and 8 controls) using quantitative EpiTyper technology. In tumors, median methylation levels of BCAN, HOXD1, KCTD8, KLF11, NXPH1, POU4F1, SIM1, and TCF7L1 were 〉= 30% higher than in normal samples, representing potential biomarkers for tumor diagnosis. Using the 90th percentile of methylation levels in normal tissue as cutoff value, 62-92% of in situ samples (n = 13), 72-97% of invasive samples from the first validation set (n = 32), and 86-100% of invasive samples from the second validation set (n = 43) were classified as hypermethylated. Hypermethylation of KLF11 and SIM1 might also be associated with increased risk of developing metastases. In summary, early methylation changes are frequent in the low-grade pathway of breast cancer and may be useful in the development of differential diagnostic and possibly also prognostic markers.-Faryna, M., Konermann, C., Aulmann, S., Bermejo, J. L., Brugger, M., Diederichs, S., Rom, J., Weichenhan, D., Claus, R., Rehli, M., Schirmacher, P., Sinn, H.-P., Plass, C., Gerhauser, C. Genome-wide methylation screen in low-grade breast cancer identifies novel epigenetically altered genes as potential biomarkers for tumor diagnosis.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22930747
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  • 9
  • 10
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CELLS ; IRRADIATION ; radiotherapy ; Germany ; RISK ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; TISSUE ; TIME ; RISK-FACTORS ; CARCINOGENESIS ; breast cancer ; PATTERNS ; resistance ; DNA methylation ; CANCER-CELLS ; EPIGENETICS ; BREAST-CANCER CELLS ; ADAPTIVE RESPONSE ; MCF7 ; Genome-wide DNA methylation
    Abstract: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Repeated exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) can result in adaptive reactions. While DNA methylation changes in adaption to repeated stress exposure are established for a variety of drugs, their role in fractioned ionizing radiation is largely unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS: MCF7 breast cancer cells were treated 5 times a week with IR in fractions of 2 Gy, resulting in total doses of 10 and 20 Gy. Cells were harvested 48 and 72 h after the last irradiation, as well as after a recovery period of at least 14 d. To identify genes differentially methylated in irradiated versus non-irradiated cells, we used methyl-CpG immunoprecipitation (MCIp) followed by global methylation profiling on CpG island microarrays. RESULTS: MCIp profiling revealed methylation changes in several CpG islands 48 h after FIR with 10 and 20 Gy. Cells receiving a total dose of 10 Gy started regrowing after 14 d and exhibited similar radioresistance as mock-treated cells. Differential methylation of the CpG units associated with FOXC1 (p〈0.001) and TRAPPC9 (p〈0.001) could be confirmed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Sequenom). CONCLUSIONS: In summary, these data indicate that regrowth of MCF7 cells after 10 Gy FIR is associated with locus-specific alterations in DNA methylation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21704414
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