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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-10-18
    Description: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has used the latest sequencing and analysis methods to identify somatic variants across thousands of tumours. Here we present data and analytical results for point mutations and small insertions/deletions from 3,281 tumours across 12 tumour types as part of the TCGA Pan-Cancer effort. We illustrate the distributions of mutation frequencies, types and contexts across tumour types, and establish their links to tissues of origin, environmental/carcinogen influences, and DNA repair defects. Using the integrated data sets, we identified 127 significantly mutated genes from well-known (for example, mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase, Wnt/beta-catenin and receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathways, and cell cycle control) and emerging (for example, histone, histone modification, splicing, metabolism and proteolysis) cellular processes in cancer. The average number of mutations in these significantly mutated genes varies across tumour types; most tumours have two to six, indicating that the number of driver mutations required during oncogenesis is relatively small. Mutations in transcriptional factors/regulators show tissue specificity, whereas histone modifiers are often mutated across several cancer types. Clinical association analysis identifies genes having a significant effect on survival, and investigations of mutations with respect to clonal/subclonal architecture delineate their temporal orders during tumorigenesis. Taken together, these results lay the groundwork for developing new diagnostics and individualizing cancer treatment.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3927368/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3927368/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kandoth, Cyriac -- McLellan, Michael D -- Vandin, Fabio -- Ye, Kai -- Niu, Beifang -- Lu, Charles -- Xie, Mingchao -- Zhang, Qunyuan -- McMichael, Joshua F -- Wyczalkowski, Matthew A -- Leiserson, Mark D M -- Miller, Christopher A -- Welch, John S -- Walter, Matthew J -- Wendl, Michael C -- Ley, Timothy J -- Wilson, Richard K -- Raphael, Benjamin J -- Ding, Li -- P01 CA101937/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01CA101937/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA180006/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG005690/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA180006/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01HG005690/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG006517/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG006517/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Oct 17;502(7471):333-9. doi: 10.1038/nature12634.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Genome Institute, Washington University in St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24132290" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Carcinogenesis/*genetics ; Cell Cycle/genetics ; Clone Cells/metabolism/pathology ; Cohort Studies ; DNA Repair/genetics ; Humans ; INDEL Mutation/genetics ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics ; Models, Genetic ; Mutation/*genetics ; Neoplasms/*classification/*genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Oncogenes/genetics ; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics ; Point Mutation/genetics ; Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism ; Survival Analysis ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-08-24
    Description: Cholesterol is essential for numerous biologic functions and processes, but an excess of intracellular cholesterol can be toxic. Intestinal cholesterol absorption is a major determinant of plasma cholesterol level. The liver X receptor (LXR) is a nuclear receptor known for its activity in cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport. In this study, we uncovered a surprising function of LXR in intestinal cholesterol absorption and toxicity. Genetic or pharmacologic activation of LXR α -sensitized mice to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) induced intestinal toxicity and tissue damage, including the disruption of enterocyte tight junctions, whereas the same HCD caused little toxicity in the absence of LXR activation. The gut toxicity in HCD-fed LXR-KI mice may have been accounted for by the increased intestinal cholesterol absorption and elevation of enterocyte and systemic levels of free cholesterol. The increased intestinal cholesterol absorption preceded the gut toxicity, suggesting that the increased absorption was not secondary to tissue damage. The heightened sensitivity to HCD in the HCD-fed LXR α -activated mice appeared to be intestine-specific because the liver was not affected despite activation of the same receptor in this tissue. Moreover, heightened sensitivity to HCD cannot be reversed by ezetimibe, a Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 inhibitor that inhibits intestinal cholesterol absorption, suggesting that the increased cholesterol absorption in LXR-activated intestine is mediated by a mechanism that has yet to be defined.
    Print ISSN: 0026-895X
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-0111
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-10-04
    Description: Fascin2 (FSCN2) is an actin cross-linking protein that is mainly localized in retinas and in the stereocilia of hair cells. Earlier studies showed that a deletion mutation in human FASCIN2 ( FSCN2 ) gene could cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Recent studies have indicated that a missense mutation in mouse Fscn2 gene (R109H) can contribute to the early onset of hearing loss in DBA/2J mice. To explore the function of the gene, Fscn2 was knocked out using TALEN (transcription activator-like effector nucleases) on the C57BL/6J background. Four mouse strains with deletions of 1, 4, 5, and 41 nucleotides in the target region of Fscn2 were developed. F1 heterozygous ( Fscn2 +/– ) mice carrying the same deletion of 41 nucleotides were mated to generate the Fscn2 –/– mice. As a result, the Fscn2 –/– mice showed progressive hearing loss, as measured in the elevation of auditory brainstem-response thresholds. The hearing impairment began at age 3 weeks at high-stimulus frequencies and became most severe at age 24 weeks. Moreover, degeneration of hair cells and loss of stereocilia were remarkable in Fscn2 –/– mice, as revealed by F-actin staining and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, compared to the controls, the Fscn2 –/– mice displayed significantly lower electroretinogram amplitudes and thinner retinas at 8, 16, and 24 weeks. These results demonstrate that, in C57BL/6Jmice, Fscn2 is essential for maintaining ear and eye function and that a null mutation of Fscn2 leads to progressive hearing loss and retinal degeneration.
    Electronic ISSN: 2160-1836
    Topics: Biology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-10-28
    Description: IGFBP2 promotes vasculogenic mimicry formation via regulating CD144 and MMP2 expression in glioma IGFBP2 promotes vasculogenic mimicry formation via regulating CD144 and MMP2 expression in glioma, Published online: 27 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41388-018-0525-4 IGFBP2 promotes vasculogenic mimicry formation via regulating CD144 and MMP2 expression in glioma
    Print ISSN: 0950-9232
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-10-04
    Description: Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a mutation in the huntingtin (HTT) protein, resulting in acquisition of toxic functions. Previous studies have shown that lowering mutant HTT has the potential to be broadly beneficial. We previously identified HTT single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tightly linked to the HD mutation and developed antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting HD-SNPs that selectively suppress mutant HTT. We tested allele-specific ASOs in a mouse model of HD. Both early and late treatment reduced cognitive and behavioral impairments in mice. To determine the translational potential of the treatment, we examined the effect of ASO administration on HTT brain expression in nonhuman primates. The treatment induced robust HTT suppression throughout the cortex and limbic system, areas implicated in cognition and psychiatric function. The results suggest that ASOs specifically targeting mutated HTT might have therapeutic effects on HD-mediated cognitive impairments.
    Print ISSN: 1946-6234
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-6242
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: It is a fundamental truth in solid compounds that the physical properties follow the symmetry of the crystal structure. Nowhere is the effect of symmetry more pronounced than in the electronic and magnetic properties of materials—even the projection of the bulk crystal symmetry onto different crystal faces is known to have a substantial impact on the surface electronic states. The effect of bulk crystal symmetry on the properties of superconductors is widely appreciated, although its study presents substantial challenges. The effect of a lack of a center of symmetry in a crystal structure, for example, has long been understood to necessitate that the wave function of the collective electron state that gives rise to superconductivity has to be more complex than usual. However, few nonhypothetical materials, if any, have actually been proven to display exotic superconducting properties as a result. We introduce two new superconductors that in addition to having noncentrosymmetric crystal structures also have chiral crystal structures. Because the wave function of electrons in solids is particularly sensitive to the host material’s symmetry, crystal structure chirality is expected to have a substantial effect on their superconducting wave functions. Our two experimentally obtained chiral noncentrosymmetric superconducting materials have transition temperatures to superconductivity that are easily experimentally accessible, and our basic property characterization suggests that their superconducting properties may be unusual. We propose that their study may allow for a more in-depth understanding of how chirality influences the properties of superconductors and devices that incorporate them.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Hypoxia contributes to pancreatic cancer progression and promotes its growth and invasion. Previous research principally focused on hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and HIF-2α (HIF1A and EPAS1) as the major hypoxia-associated transcription factors in pancreatic cancer. However, the role of HIF-3α (HIF3A) has not been investigated. Therefore, HIF-1α, HIF-2α, and HIF-3α expression levels were measured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. In addition, HIF-3α expression was measured in human pancreatic cancer tissue specimens and the impact of altered HIF-3α expression on cell invasion and migration was investigated in vitro and in vivo , as well as the underlying mechanisms. Under hypoxic conditions, HIF-3α expression was stimulated in pancreatic cancer cells to a greater degree than HIF-1α and HIF-2α expression. HIF-3α protein levels were also elevated in pancreatic cancer tissues and correlated with reduced survival and greater local invasion and distant metastasis, whereas knockdown of HIF-3α, under hypoxic conditions, suppressed pancreatic cancer cell invasion and migration. Under normoxia, HIF-3α overexpression promoted pancreatic cancer cell invasion and migration and stimulated F-actin polymerization. In summary, HIF-3α promotes pancreatic cancer cell invasion and metastasis in vivo and promotes pancreatic cancer cell invasion and metastasis by transcriptionally activating the RhoC–ROCK1 signaling pathway. Implications: HIF3α is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, and targeting the HIF3α/RhoC–ROCK1 signaling pathway may be a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis. Mol Cancer Res; 16(1); 124–34. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1541-7786
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3125
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Like many transcription factors, the yeast protein MATalpha2 (α2) undergoes rapid proteolysis via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). At least two ubiquitylation pathways regulate α2 degradation: one pathway utilizes the ubiquitin ligase (E3) Doa10 and the other the heterodimeric E3 Slx5/Slx8. Doa10 is a transmembrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum/inner nuclear membrane, whereas Slx5/Slx8 localizes to the nucleus and binds DNA nonspecifically. While a single protein can often be ubiquitylated by multiple pathways, the reasons for this "division of labor" are not well understood. Here we show that α2 mutants with impaired DNA binding become inaccessible to the Slx5/Slx8 pathway but are still rapidly degraded through efficient shunting to the Doa10 pathway. These results are consistent with the distinct localization of these E3s. We also characterized a novel class of DNA binding-defective α2 variants whose degradation is strongly impaired. Our genetic data suggest that this is due to a gain-of-function interaction that limits their access to Doa10. Together, these results suggest multiple ubiquitin-ligation mechanisms may have evolved to promote rapid destruction of a transcription factor that resides in distinct cellular subcompartments under different conditions. Moreover, gain-of-function mutations, which also occur with oncogenic forms of human transcription factors such as p53, may derail this fail-safe system.
    Print ISSN: 1059-1524
    Electronic ISSN: 1939-4586
    Topics: Biology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-04-30
    Description: Reprogramming somatic fibroblasts into alternative lineages would provide a promising source of cells for regenerative therapy. However, transdifferentiating human cells to specific homogeneous, functional cell types is challenging. Here we show that cardiomyocyte-like cells can be generated by treating human fibroblasts with a combination of nine compounds (9C). The chemically induced cardiomyocyte-like cells (ciCMs) uniformly contracted and resembled human cardiomyocytes in their transcriptome, epigenetic, and electrophysiological properties. 9C treatment of human fibroblasts resulted in a more open-chromatin conformation at key heart developmental genes, enabling their promoters/enhancers to bind effectors of major cardiogenic signals. When transplanted into infarcted mouse hearts, 9C-treated fibroblasts were efficiently converted to ciCMs. This pharmacological approach for lineage-specific reprogramming may have many important therapeutic implications after further optimization to generate mature cardiac cells.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cao, Nan -- Huang, Yu -- Zheng, Jiashun -- Spencer, C Ian -- Zhang, Yu -- Fu, Ji-Dong -- Nie, Baoming -- Xie, Min -- Zhang, Mingliang -- Wang, Haixia -- Ma, Tianhua -- Xu, Tao -- Shi, Guilai -- Srivastava, Deepak -- Ding, Sheng -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 28. pii: aaf1502.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. ; Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Heart and Vascular Research Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. ; Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. ; Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. sheng.ding@gladstone.ucsf.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27127239" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-06-07
    Description: Sheep (Ovis aries) are a major source of meat, milk, and fiber in the form of wool and represent a distinct class of animals that have a specialized digestive organ, the rumen, that carries out the initial digestion of plant material. We have developed and analyzed a high-quality reference sheep genome and transcriptomes from 40 different tissues. We identified highly expressed genes encoding keratin cross-linking proteins associated with rumen evolution. We also identified genes involved in lipid metabolism that had been amplified and/or had altered tissue expression patterns. This may be in response to changes in the barrier lipids of the skin, an interaction between lipid metabolism and wool synthesis, and an increased role of volatile fatty acids in ruminants compared with nonruminant animals.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4157056/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4157056/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jiang, Yu -- Xie, Min -- Chen, Wenbin -- Talbot, Richard -- Maddox, Jillian F -- Faraut, Thomas -- Wu, Chunhua -- Muzny, Donna M -- Li, Yuxiang -- Zhang, Wenguang -- Stanton, Jo-Ann -- Brauning, Rudiger -- Barris, Wesley C -- Hourlier, Thibaut -- Aken, Bronwen L -- Searle, Stephen M J -- Adelson, David L -- Bian, Chao -- Cam, Graham R -- Chen, Yulin -- Cheng, Shifeng -- DeSilva, Udaya -- Dixen, Karen -- Dong, Yang -- Fan, Guangyi -- Franklin, Ian R -- Fu, Shaoyin -- Fuentes-Utrilla, Pablo -- Guan, Rui -- Highland, Margaret A -- Holder, Michael E -- Huang, Guodong -- Ingham, Aaron B -- Jhangiani, Shalini N -- Kalra, Divya -- Kovar, Christie L -- Lee, Sandra L -- Liu, Weiqing -- Liu, Xin -- Lu, Changxin -- Lv, Tian -- Mathew, Tittu -- McWilliam, Sean -- Menzies, Moira -- Pan, Shengkai -- Robelin, David -- Servin, Bertrand -- Townley, David -- Wang, Wenliang -- Wei, Bin -- White, Stephen N -- Yang, Xinhua -- Ye, Chen -- Yue, Yaojing -- Zeng, Peng -- Zhou, Qing -- Hansen, Jacob B -- Kristiansen, Karsten -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Flicek, Paul -- Warkup, Christopher C -- Jones, Huw E -- Oddy, V Hutton -- Nicholas, Frank W -- McEwan, John C -- Kijas, James W -- Wang, Jun -- Worley, Kim C -- Archibald, Alan L -- Cockett, Noelle -- Xu, Xun -- Wang, Wen -- Dalrymple, Brian P -- 095908/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- BB/1025360/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/I025328/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/I025360/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/I025506/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- WT095908/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jun 6;344(6188):1168-73. doi: 10.1126/science.1252806.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Animal Food and Health Sciences, St Lucia, QLD 4067, Australia. College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China. ; BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China. ; Ediburgh Genomics, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK. ; Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-4815, USA. ; Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Laboratoire de Genetique Cellulaire, UMR 444, Castanet-Tolosan F-31326, France. ; Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-1435, USA. ; Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. ; State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China. Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot 010018, China. Institute of ATCG, Nei Mongol Bio-Information, Hohhot, China. ; Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. ; AgResearch, Invermay Agricultural Centre, Mosgiel 9053, New Zealand. ; Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Animal Food and Health Sciences, St Lucia, QLD 4067, Australia. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, UK. European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, UK. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, UK. ; College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China. ; Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark. ; State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China. ; Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot 010018, China. ; U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Animal Disease Research Unit, Pullman, WA 99164, USA. Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA. ; BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China. Maize Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China. ; Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical Science, Lanzhou, 730050, China. ; Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. ; European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, UK. ; Biosciences Knowledge Transfer Network, The Roslin Institute, Easter Bush, Midlothian, EH25 9RG, UK. ; School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia. ; Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. ; BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China. Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. Princess Al Jawhara Center of Excellence in the Research of Hereditary Disorders, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia. Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau 999078, China. ; Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. brian.dalrymple@csiro.au wwang@mail.kiz.ac.cn xuxun@genomics.cn alan.archibald@roslin.ed.ac.uk kworley@bcm.edu noelle.cockett@usu.edu. ; The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK. brian.dalrymple@csiro.au wwang@mail.kiz.ac.cn xuxun@genomics.cn alan.archibald@roslin.ed.ac.uk kworley@bcm.edu noelle.cockett@usu.edu. ; Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-1435, USA. brian.dalrymple@csiro.au wwang@mail.kiz.ac.cn xuxun@genomics.cn alan.archibald@roslin.ed.ac.uk kworley@bcm.edu noelle.cockett@usu.edu. ; BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China. brian.dalrymple@csiro.au wwang@mail.kiz.ac.cn xuxun@genomics.cn alan.archibald@roslin.ed.ac.uk kworley@bcm.edu noelle.cockett@usu.edu. ; State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China. brian.dalrymple@csiro.au wwang@mail.kiz.ac.cn xuxun@genomics.cn alan.archibald@roslin.ed.ac.uk kworley@bcm.edu noelle.cockett@usu.edu. ; Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Animal Food and Health Sciences, St Lucia, QLD 4067, Australia. brian.dalrymple@csiro.au wwang@mail.kiz.ac.cn xuxun@genomics.cn alan.archibald@roslin.ed.ac.uk kworley@bcm.edu noelle.cockett@usu.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24904168" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Fatty Acids, Volatile/metabolism/physiology ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Genome ; Keratins, Hair-Specific/genetics ; Lipid Metabolism/genetics/*physiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; Rumen/metabolism/*physiology ; Sheep, Domestic/classification/*genetics/*metabolism ; Transcriptome ; Wool/growth & development
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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