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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words GABA ; Bromodeoxyuridine ; Proliferation ; Immunohistochemistry ; Retina ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The birthdates of GABAergic amacrine cells in the rat retina were investigated by immunocytochemistry using anti-GABA and anti-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) antisera. The ratio of co-localization of GABA to BrdU increased gradually from embryonic-day 13 (E13) and showed a peak value on E18 in the central retina and on E20 in the periphery. After birth, until postnatal-day 3 (P3), a few co-localized cells were observed in the inner nuclear layer (INL). However, in the peripheral retina, co-localized cells were observed in the INL and ganglion cell layer until P5. Our results suggest that the birthdates of GABA-immunoreactive cells vary, depending on cell-type and that there is a temporal lag in the GABA-immunoreactive cell production in the peripheral retina relative to the central retina.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Nitric oxide synthase ; GABA ; Retina ; Rabbit ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  In rabbit and rat retinae, wholemounted preparations and 40 μm thick vibratome sections were processed for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactivity and consecutive semithin sections were immunostained with anti-NOS and anti-GABA antisera, respectively. Two types of NOS-labelled amacrine cells were identified: type 1 cells with larger somata were intensely stained, and type 2 cells with smaller somata were weakly stained. A few displaced amacrine cells also showed NOS-like immunoreactivity. All these NOS-like immunoreactive neurons also expressed GABA-like immunoreactivity. Thus, nitric-oxide-containing neurons might constitute a subpopulation of GABAergic neurons in rabbit and rat retinae.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Glial fibrillary acidic protein ; Müller cell ; Increased intraocular pressure ; Retina ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Using light microscopy and immunocytochemistry, we investigated the morphological changes of retinal tissues and the reaction of Müller cells in the ischemic rat retina induced by increasing intraocular pressure. At early stages (from 1 h to 24 h after reperfusion), cells in the ganglion cell layer and in the inner nuclear layer showed some degenerative changes, but at later stages (from 72 h to 4 weeks) marked degenerative changes occurred in the outer nuclear layer (ONL). At 4 weeks after reperfusion, the ONL was reduced to 1 or 2 cell layers. Immunoreactivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) appeared in the endfeet and distal processes of Müller cells as of 1 h after reperfusion. GFAP immunoreactivity in Müller cells increased up to 2 weeks and then decreased at 4 weeks after reperfusion. Our findings suggest that Müller cells are involved in the pathophysiology of retinal ischemia through the expression of GFAP. The degree of GFAP expression in Müller cells closely correlated with that of the degeneration of retinal neurons.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Expression patterns of phospholipase D1 (PLD1) in the developing rat retina were investigated using immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis and compared with the expression patterns of glutamine synthetase. PLD1 immunoreactivity appeared first in a few neuroblasts in the middle of the mantle zone of the primitive retina by embryonic (E) day 13. PLD1-immunoreactive primitive ganglion cells were characterized in the ganglion cell layer by E17. Faint immunoreactivity at E17 profiled radially orientated cells and this pattern appeared up to postnatal (P) day 7. In the ganglion cell layer at P3, displaced amacrine cells and ganglion cells were classified. At P5, presumptive horizontal cells and amacrine cells were identified. By P7, a thin outermost layer of newly formed segments of the photoreceptor cells was also PLD1 immunoreactive. PLD1 immunoreactivity at P8 was limited to radial Müller cells and the outer segment layer of the photoreceptor cells, and the expression pattern was conserved to adulthood. Western blot analysis showed relatively high amounts of PLD1 protein at E17 and P3, a decrease at P7, and moderate amounts from P8 onward. Co-expression of PLD1 with glutamine synthetase in the retina appeared first after birth in differentiating neurons and in Müller cells by P8; thereafter the pattern was maintained. The expression pattern of the PLD1 during development of the retina suggests that PLD1 plays important roles in glutamate-associated differentiation of both specific neurons and radial glial cells, and in glutamate-mediated cellular signalling in Müller cells.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Ultraviolet light ; Cavernosal smooth muscle ; Diabetogenic impotence ; Photorelaxation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of ultraviolet (UV) light (310 nm) on human cavernosal smooth muscles were investigated. Cavernosal strips were obtained from men during penile prosthetic surgery. When the cavernosal strips were irradiated with UV light in an organ bath, after precontraction by norepinephrine (100 nM) for 10, 20, 40 and 90 s at intervals of 3 min, the contracted cavernosal smooth muscles from the impotent men without vascular risk factors (controls) showed relaxation depending on the duration of irradiation. However, the relaxation was not found when the strips were pretreated with methylene blue (10 μM) or their epithelia were denuded. The relaxation response of the cavernosal strips from the patients with diabetogenic impotence was significantly reduced compared with that of the controls. Photorelaxation of human cavernosal strips therefore seems to be dependent on endothelium.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Key words Tamsulosin ; Phentolamine ; Erectile dysfunction ; Cavernous smooth muscle ; Intracavernosal injection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In vitro and in vivo studies were performed to determine the potential use of tamsulosin (TAM) versus phentolamine (PHE) for intracavernosal injection (ICI) therapy when mixed with papaverine (PAP) and/or prostagladin E1 (PGE1) or with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. We performed isometric tension studies on rabbit (n=15), dog (n=5), and human (n=10) cavernous smooth muscle strips with TAM, PAP, PHE, VIP, PGE1, and the combinations of PAP and PHE; PAP and TAM; VIP and PHE; VIP and TAM; PAP, PGE1 and PHE; and PAP, PGE1 and TAM. TAM-containing trimix (PAP 18.75 mg, PGE1 6.25 μmg, and TAM 0.875 mg per ml) or PHE-containing trimix (PAP, PGE1, and PHE 0.625 mg per ml) were also injected into the cavernous bodies of ten mongrel dogs. Among the single agents, TAM and PGE1 (only in human) had the strongest effect on the relaxation of cavernous muscles in rabbit, dog, and human strips (P 〈 0.05). Relaxation responses to 2- or 3-drug mixtures containing tamsulosin were also significantly better (P 〈 0.05) than PHE-containing ones in rabbit, dog, and human strips. The increase in intracavernosal pressure with a TAM-containing trimix was higher than with a PHE-containing one (0.03 ml; 81.2 vs 75.8 mmHg, 0.04 ml; 103.2 vs 94.3 mmHg), although not statistically different. The drop in systemic blood pressure was lower after injection of a TAM-containing trimix than a PHE-containing one, although not statistically different. In conclusion, tamsulosin might be a more efficacious and safer agent to use for ICI therapy than phentolamine.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Keywords: Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv); middle cerebral artery (MCA); chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH).
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary  The aim of this study was to evaluate the haemodynamic changes of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and their clinical significance before and after surgical aspiration in patients with chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH).  Nineteen patients with CSDH (17 unilateral and 2 bilateral) received transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) examinations for cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) of the MCA prior to and 5 days after neurosurgical treatment. A total of 21 lesion and 10 non-lesion hemispheres were included. Cranial computerized tomography (CT) and clinical assessments were performed before and 3 months following surgery.  The preoperative TCD study revealed that the lesion hemisphere had a modest decrease in CBFv in the MCA as compared to the non-lesion hemisphere. Postoperatively, the CBFv significantly improved in the lesion hemisphere, but not in the non-lesion hemisphere, compared to the preoperative data (P〈0.005). The improvement in CBFv showed no significant correlation with brain shift and haematoma volume of the initial cranial CT. Additionally, two patients, who were proved to have a postoperative complication of subdural pneumocephalus, failed to attend follow-up examinations of TCD.  Our results support TCD as an alternative follow-up examination for patients with CSDH, although it may not be sensitive enough as a preoperative screening tool. Postoperatively, improvements in the CBFv of the lesion hemisphere are characteristic. An unexplained difficulty of accessing cerebral basal arteries in follow-up TCD examinations should suggest pneumocephalus in the primary differential diagnosis.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Body iron content and iron balance were studied in the spider (D. hentzi). 1. Total iron content of individual male and female spiders averaged 350 μg. 2. Food intake consisted of domestic crickets. Iron content of crickets averaged 12.4 μg/cricket of which 8.7 μg was absorbed by the spiders. The average number of crickets ingested during a period of six months was 14, amounting to 124 μg of iron absorbed. 3. Most of the iron was localized in the opisthosoma. In four female spiders a mean of 85% of the radioiron still present 13 to 15 months after ingestion was found there. 4. Iron excretion in urine and feces was 19.9 μg/month or 119 μg for a six month period. The excretion of radioiron followed in four females showed a halflife of six months. 5. Molts showed an average iron content of 41.3 μg. These large spiders may molt every year or at considerably longer intervals. If iron lost in the molt is added to other iron loss, it appears to exceed the estimated intake, but by a negligible fraction. 6. Cell free normal blood revealed that iron is present to the extent of 85 μg/100 ml and is bound to two proteins. Some of the properties of the proteins are reported. Saturation with radioiron showed that the blood could take up another 21 μg iron/100 ml.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1434-6079
    Keywords: 36.40
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Large even-numbered carbon clusters in the size range from 100 to 600 atoms (giant fullerenes) were generated by laser vaporization and directly injected as positive ions via a supersonic beam into the magnetic trap of an ion cyclotron resonance apparatus. Intense laser excitation of the magnetically levitated fullerenes at 4.0 eV was found to result in production of multiply charged fragments in the trap. Details of the time scale and size dependence of this process suggest it is due to thermionic emission from the superheated gas phase clusters.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 67 (1996), S. 1886-1890 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A high precision, computer-controlled adsorption isotherm apparatus has been constructed and used to investigate a variety of physisorbed systems. Suitable for absolute measurements, this apparatus features good vapor pressure resolution and outstanding temperature stability. The hallmark of the apparatus, however, is the graphical computer interface, written using the popular LABVIEW package, which offers a flexibility and ease-of-use not achieved in previous automated systems. This article will demonstrate the quality of data obtainable with this system, as well as the simplicity of operation afforded by the graphical interface. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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