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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-10-04
    Description: The primary cilium is a microtubule-based organelle that functions in sensory and signalling pathways. Defects in ciliogenesis can lead to a group of genetic syndromes known as ciliopathies. However, the regulatory mechanisms of primary ciliogenesis in normal and cancer cells are incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that autophagic degradation of a ciliopathy protein, OFD1 (oral-facial-digital syndrome 1), at centriolar satellites promotes primary cilium biogenesis. Autophagy is a catabolic pathway in which cytosol, damaged organelles and protein aggregates are engulfed in autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes for destruction. We show that the population of OFD1 at the centriolar satellites is rapidly degraded by autophagy upon serum starvation. In autophagy-deficient Atg5 or Atg3 null mouse embryonic fibroblasts, OFD1 accumulates at centriolar satellites, leading to fewer and shorter primary cilia and a defective recruitment of BBS4 (Bardet-Biedl syndrome 4) to cilia. These defects are fully rescued by OFD1 partial knockdown that reduces the population of OFD1 at centriolar satellites. More strikingly, OFD1 depletion at centriolar satellites promotes cilia formation in both cycling cells and transformed breast cancer MCF7 cells that normally do not form cilia. This work reveals that removal of OFD1 by autophagy at centriolar satellites represents a general mechanism to promote ciliogenesis in mammalian cells. These findings define a newly recognized role of autophagy in organelle biogenesis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4075283/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4075283/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tang, Zaiming -- Lin, Mary Grace -- Stowe, Timothy Richard -- Chen, She -- Zhu, Muyuan -- Stearns, Tim -- Franco, Brunella -- Zhong, Qing -- CA133228/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA133228/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- TGM11CB3/Telethon/Italy -- England -- Nature. 2013 Oct 10;502(7470):254-7. doi: 10.1038/nature12606. Epub 2013 Oct 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Autophagy Research, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24089205" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Autophagy/genetics ; Cell Line ; Centrioles/*metabolism ; Cilia/genetics/metabolism/*physiology ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; MCF-7 Cells ; Mice ; Protein Transport ; Proteins/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-09-27
    Description: The gnathostome (jawed vertebrate) crown group comprises two extant clades with contrasting character complements. Notably, Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) lack the large dermal bones that characterize Osteichthyes (bony fish and tetrapods). The polarities of these differences, and the morphology of the last common ancestor of crown gnathostomes, are the subject of continuing debate. Here we describe a three-dimensionally preserved 419-million-year-old placoderm fish from the Silurian of China that represents the first stem gnathostome with dermal marginal jaw bones (premaxilla, maxilla and dentary), features previously restricted to Osteichthyes. A phylogenetic analysis places the new form near the top of the gnathostome stem group but does not fully resolve its relationships to other placoderms. The analysis also assigns all acanthodians to the chondrichthyan stem group. These results suggest that the last common ancestor of Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes had a macromeric dermal skeleton, and provide a new framework for studying crown gnathostome divergence.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhu, Min -- Yu, Xiaobo -- Ahlberg, Per Erik -- Choo, Brian -- Lu, Jing -- Qiao, Tuo -- Qu, Qingming -- Zhao, Wenjin -- Jia, Liantao -- Blom, Henning -- Zhu, You'an -- England -- Nature. 2013 Oct 10;502(7470):188-93. doi: 10.1038/nature12617. Epub 2013 Sep 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China. zhumin@ivpp.ac.cn〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24067611" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; China ; Fishes/*anatomy & histology/*classification ; *Fossils ; Jaw/*anatomy & histology ; *Phylogeny ; Species Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-05-25
    Description: The formability and mechanical properties of many engineering alloys are intimately related to the formation and growth of twins. Understanding the structure and chemistry of twin boundaries at the atomic scale is crucial if we are to properly tailor twins to achieve a new range of desired properties. We report an unusual phenomenon in magnesium alloys that until now was thought unlikely: the equilibrium segregation of solute atoms into patterns within fully coherent terraces of deformation twin boundaries. This ordered segregation provides a pinning effect for twin boundaries, leading to a concomitant but unusual situation in which annealing strengthens rather than weakens these alloys. The findings point to a platform for engineering nano-twinned structures through solute atoms. This may lead to new alloy compositions and thermomechanical processes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nie, J F -- Zhu, Y M -- Liu, J Z -- Fang, X Y -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 May 24;340(6135):957-60. doi: 10.1126/science.1229369.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23704567" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-08-21
    Description: Tissue-resident CD8 + T cells (T rm ) can rapidly eliminate virally infected cells, but their heterogeneous spatial distribution may leave gaps in protection within tissues. Although T rm patrol prior sites of viral replication, murine studies suggest they do not redistribute to adjacent uninfected sites to provide wider protection. We perform mathematical modeling of HSV-2 shedding in Homo sapiens and predict that infection does not induce enough T rm in many genital tract regions to eliminate shedding; a strict spatial distribution pattern of mucosal CD8 + T cell density is maintained throughout chronic infection, and trafficking of T rm across wide genital tract areas is unlikely. These predictions are confirmed with spatial analysis of CD8 + T cell distribution in histopathologic specimens from human genital biopsies. Further simulations predict that the key mechanistic correlate of protection following therapeutic HSV-2 vaccination would be an increase in total T rm rather than spatial reassortment of these cells. The fixed spatial structure of T rm induced by HSV-2 is sufficient for rapid elimination of infected cells but only in a portion of genital tract microregions.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Most living vertebrates are jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes), and the living jawless vertebrates (cyclostomes), hagfishes and lampreys, provide scarce information about the profound reorganization of the vertebrate skull during the evolutionary origin of jaws. The extinct bony jawless vertebrates, or 'ostracoderms', are regarded as precursors of jawed vertebrates and provide insight into this formative episode in vertebrate evolution. Here, using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomography, we describe the cranial anatomy of galeaspids, a 435-370-million-year-old 'ostracoderm' group from China and Vietnam. The paired nasal sacs of galeaspids are located anterolaterally in the braincase, and the hypophyseal duct opens anteriorly towards the oral cavity. These three structures (the paired nasal sacs and the hypophyseal duct) were thus already independent of each other, like in gnathostomes and unlike in cyclostomes and osteostracans (another 'ostracoderm' group), and therefore have the condition that current developmental models regard as prerequisites for the development of jaws. This indicates that the reorganization of vertebrate cranial anatomy was not driven deterministically by the evolutionary origin of jaws but occurred stepwise, ultimately allowing the rostral growth of ectomesenchyme that now characterizes gnathostome head development.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gai, Zhikun -- Donoghue, Philip C J -- Zhu, Min -- Janvier, Philippe -- Stampanoni, Marco -- England -- Nature. 2011 Aug 17;476(7360):324-7. doi: 10.1038/nature10276.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1RJ, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21850106" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; China ; Fishes/*anatomy & histology/*classification ; *Fossils ; Head/anatomy & histology ; Jaw/*anatomy & histology ; Vietnam
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-20
    Description: Modern fabrication techniques, such as additive manufacturing, can be used to create materials with complex custom internal structures. These engineered materials exhibit a much broader range of bulk properties than their base materials and are typically referred to as metamaterials or microstructures. Although metamaterials with extraordinary properties have many applications, designing them is very difficult and is generally done by hand. We propose a computational approach to discover families of microstructures with extremal macroscale properties automatically. Using efficient simulation and sampling techniques, we compute the space of mechanical properties covered by physically realizable microstructures. Our system then clusters microstructures with common topologies into families. Parameterized templates are eventually extracted from families to generate new microstructure designs. We demonstrate these capabilities on the computational design of mechanical metamaterials and present five auxetic microstructure families with extremal elastic material properties. Our study opens the way for the completely automated discovery of extremal microstructures across multiple domains of physics, including applications reliant on thermal, electrical, and magnetic properties.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-01-30
    Description: N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A), catalyzed by Mettl3 methyltransferase, is a highly conserved epigenetic modification in eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA). Previous studies have implicated m 6 A modification in multiple biological processes, but the in vivo function of m 6 A has been difficult to study, because mettl3 mutants are embryonic lethal in both mammals and plants. In this study, we have used transcription activator-like effector nucleases and generated viable zygotic mettl3 mutant, Z mettl3 m/m , in zebrafish. We find that the oocytes in Z mettl3 m/m adult females are stalled in early development and the ratio of full-grown stage (FG) follicles is significantly lower than that of wild type. Human chorionic gonadotropin-induced ovarian germinal vesicle breakdown in vitro and the numbers of eggs ovulated in vivo are both decreased as well, while the defects of oocyte maturation can be rescued by sex hormone in vitro and in vivo . In Z mettl3 m/m adult males, we find defects in sperm maturation and sperm motility is significantly reduced. Further study shows that 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels are significantly decreased in Z mettl3 m/m , and defective gamete maturation is accompanied by decreased overall m 6 A modification levels and disrupted expression of genes critical for sex hormone synthesis and gonadotropin signaling in Z mettl3 m/m . Thus, our study provides the first in vivo evidence that loss of Mettl3 leads to failed gamete maturation and significantly reduced fertility in zebrafish. Mettl3 and m 6 A modifications are essential for optimal reproduction in vertebrates.
    Print ISSN: 0016-6731
    Topics: Biology
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-12-21
    Description: Junctophilin-2 (JP2) is a structural protein required for normal excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling. After cardiac stress, JP2 is cleaved by the calcium ion–dependent protease calpain, which disrupts the E-C coupling ultrastructural machinery and drives heart failure progression. We found that stress-induced proteolysis of JP2 liberates an N-terminal fragment (JP2NT) that translocates to the nucleus, binds to genomic DNA, and controls expression of a spectrum of genes in cardiomyocytes. Transgenic overexpression of JP2NT in mice modifies the transcriptional profile, resulting in attenuated pathological remodeling in response to cardiac stress. Conversely, loss of nuclear JP2NT function accelerates stress-induced development of hypertrophy and heart failure in mutant mice. These data reveal a self-protective mechanism in failing cardiomyocytes that transduce mechanical information (E-C uncoupling) into salutary transcriptional reprogramming in the stressed heart.
    Keywords: Cell Biology, Molecular Biology, Online Only
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-06-01
    Description: The distributed network of receptors, neurons, and synapses in the somatosensory system efficiently processes complex tactile information. We used flexible organic electronics to mimic the functions of a sensory nerve. Our artificial afferent nerve collects pressure information (1 to 80 kilopascals) from clusters of pressure sensors, converts the pressure information into action potentials (0 to 100 hertz) by using ring oscillators, and integrates the action potentials from multiple ring oscillators with a synaptic transistor. Biomimetic hierarchical structures can detect movement of an object, combine simultaneous pressure inputs, and distinguish braille characters. Furthermore, we connected our artificial afferent nerve to motor nerves to construct a hybrid bioelectronic reflex arc to actuate muscles. Our system has potential applications in neurorobotics and neuroprosthetics.
    Keywords: Engineering, Materials Science
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-04-03
    Description: The cross-talk between epigenetics and miRNA expression plays an important role in human tumorigenesis. Herein, the regulation and role of miR-196b-5p in gastric cancer was investigated. qRT-PCR demonstrated that miR-196b-5p is significantly overexpressed in human gastric cancer tissues ( P 〈 0.01). In addition, it was determined that HOXA10, a homeobox family member and host gene for miR-196b-5p, is overexpressed and positively correlated with miR-196b-5p expression levels ( P 〈 0.001). Quantitative pyrosequencing methylation analysis demonstrated significantly lower levels of DNA methylation at the HOXA10 promoter in gastric cancer, as compared with nonneoplastic gastric mucosa specimens. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment confirmed that demethylation of HOXA10 promoter induces the expression of HOXA10 and miR-196b-5p in gastric cancer cell model systems. Using the Tff1 knockout mouse model of gastric neoplasia, hypomethylation and overexpression of HOXA10 and miR-196b-5p in gastric tumors was observed, as compared with normal gastric mucosa from Tff1 wild-type mice. Mechanistically, reconstitution of TFF1 in human gastric cancer cells led to an increased HOXA10 promoter methylation with reduced expression of HOXA10 and miR-196b-5p. Functionally, miR-196b-5p reconstitution promoted human gastric cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro . In summary, the current data demonstrate overexpression of miR-196b-5p in gastric cancer and suggest that TFF1 plays an important role in suppressing the expression of miR-196b-5p by mediating DNA methylation of the HOXA10 promoter. Loss of TFF1 expression may promote proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer cells through induction of promoter hypomethylation and expression of the HOXA10/miR-196b-5p axis. Implications: This study indicates that loss of TFF1 promotes the aberrant overexpression of HOXA10 and miR-196b-5p by demethylation of the HOXA10 promoter, which provides a new perspective of TFF1/HOXA10/miR-196b-5p functions in human gastric cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 16(4); 696–706. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1541-7786
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3125
    Topics: Medicine
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