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  • 1
    ISSN: 1745-4603
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Twenty four commercial food samples were evaluated by a professionally trained descriptive panel who profiled hardness, springiness, fracturability, cohesiveness, cohesiveness of mass and chewiness in the test samples. Instrumental evaluation was carried out using both single and double compression tests with the TAX-T2 Texture Analyzer and a probe consisting of a set of dentures (B.I.T.E. masterII). Multiple instrumental parameters were extracted from the force-deformation curves of single and double compression tests and used for predicting sensory attributes using Partial Least Squares Regression. Relative Ability of Prediction (RAP), the equivalent of an R2 taking into account the unexplained variation of the sensory data, were calculated to evaluate the models'predictive quality. Hardness (RAP=0.84), cohesiveness (RAP=0.72), and fracturability (RAP=0.85) were somewhat accurately predicted, while springiness (RAP=0.52), cohesiveness of mass (RAP=0.34), and chewiness (RAP=0.25) were unsatisfactorily predicted using a single compression test. Even though the test methods used differed significantly from traditional TPA testing, a double compression test did not offer significant improvements over the single compression test for the prediction of textural characteristics, except for the attributes springiness (RAP=0.79) and cohesiveness of mass (RAP=0.49).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Restructured beef steaks were processed from USDA Select chuck muscles without the use of additives, and three processing variables were utilized at three different levels: -2, 0, +2C for mixing temperature, 12, 18, 24 min for mixing time and 1, 2, 3 passes through a kidney plate for particle size reduction. A sensory panel composed of 149 untrained consumer panelists evaluated the 27 treatment combinations for five sensory attributes. Instrumental determinations were also made. Increasing mixing temperature and decreasing particle size significantly decreased sensory tenderness, flavor and overall acceptance and increased instrumental hardness and springiness of the restructured beef steaks. Increasing mixing time had a significant effect on sensory appearance and on instrumental cohesiveness and gumminess. The means for sensory scores were used for a response surface analysis (RSM) to optimize the three processing variables. Significant models were found for tenderness (P〈0.05), overall acceptance (P〈0.05) and flavor (P〈0.15). Using a sensory score of 6.00 (like slightly) as an acceptable score, optima for the processing variables were determined. To obtain an acceptable product, the meat should be ground by two passes through the kidney plate then mixed at a maximum temperature of 0.67C for 12 min.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: : :The sensory texture characteristics of 2 yogurt types (light, blended, N = 69) were evaluated using a trained descriptive panel and an instrumental compression/penetration test in combination with a novel data analysis method (that is Spectral Stress Strain Analysis). Partial Least Squares Regression was used to study the relationship between each of the 7 sensory texture attributes and spectral force deformation data measured during instrumental testing. The best predictive models were computed for spoon impression (Validation Correlation (Rval) = 0.93, Root Mean Square Error of Prediction (RMSEP) = 1.33, Discrimination Index (DI) = 2.80), visual thickness (Rval) = 0.89, RMSEP = 0.83, DI = 2.40), and slipperiness (Rval= 0.81, RMSEP = 0.60, DI = 1.76). Oral Thickness (Rval= 0.78), cohesiveness (Rval= 0.73), covering (Rval= 0.61) and stickiness (Rval= 0.57) were less accurately predicted.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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