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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Gossypol, a natural polyphenolic compound, induces growth-inhibitory and antiparasitic effects inTaenia taeniaeformis metacestodes in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the uptake and localization of [3H]-gossypol in this parasite. Metacestodes were incubated in 10−5 M [3H]-gossypol at 37°C. Parasites steadily took up tritium activity over the first 3 h of incubation, after which a plateau was maintained for the duration of the experiment. Tissue: medium radioactivity ratios revealed that intralarval tritium activity matched extralarval activity within 30 min of incubation and continued to increase with time. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis confirmed tissue incorporation of tritium activity that manifested as a single radioactive species. Autoradiography localized [3H]-gossypol to the tegument, calcareous corpuscles, and parenchyma over the first 2 h of incubation. By 6 h, parenchymal radioactivity had disappeared.T. taeniaeformis metacestodes rapidly take up and accumulate [3H]-gossypol in vitro. This accumulation is apparently selective for specific sites, which may have implications for gossypol's metacestocidal action.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1572-994X
    Keywords: hepatitis B virus ; hepatitis B virus surface antigen ; viral DNA isolation ; mutations ; hepatocellular carcinoma ; paraffin-embedded tissue
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The antigenic “a” determinant of the human hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) is highly conserved and involved in inducing neutralizing antibody. Mutations on this determinant have been associated with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) escape from vaccination but are also found in chronic HBV carriers, but their involvement in liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. To investigate the possible liver disease-associated role of HBsAg mutants, their incidence was analyzed in 11 paraffin embedded HCC tissues using an improved DNA extraction method. Mutations on the “a” determinant (Thr126Ser, Gly145Arg, a double mutant Thr126Ser/Gln129Asn, Met133Leu and Thr140Ile) were identified in 5 samples while the wild type sequence was found in 2 others. Future characterization of these HCC-associated HBsAg mutants should provide new insights on their role in the pathogenesis of HCC.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-8196
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract The major challenges of designing multicast traffic control protocols for a combined wired/wireless network are the varying transmission characteristics (bandwidth, error, and propagation delay) of the wireless and wired media, and the different, possibly conflicting frame rate requests from multiple sources. To address these issues, in this paper we design and evaluate new unicast and multicast guaranteed frame rate (GFR) schemes for supporting TCP/IP traffic over a combined wired/wireless ATM network. We first propose a new, flexible weighted buffer management, and a frame‐based virtual spacing (VS) mechanism implementing weighted fair queueing. The unicast GFR scheme is based on the integration of the new weighted buffer management, and either cell‐based or frame‐based VS. It is then extended to support multicast GFR flows. The multicast scheme presented in this paper is the first multicast GFR scheme appeared in the literature. These schemes are carefully evaluated over several network configuration, supporting heterogeneous TCP/IP traffic with various frame rates. Simulation results show that the new schemes guarantee the minimum rates requested, provide excellent fairness, and achieve reasonably high efficiency. The new schemes may be extended to provide differentiated service in both IP and mobile IP frame work.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0484
    Keywords: distributed systems ; distributed mutual exclusion ; critical section ; distributed algorithms ; communication networks
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract In this paper, we investigate distributed mutual exclusion algorithms and delineate the features of a new distributed mutual exclusion algorithm. The basis of the algorithm is the logical ring structure employed in token-based mutual exclusion algorithms. Specifically, there exists dynamic properties of the logical ring that, given certain restrictions regarding message traffic flow, passively give useful information about the location of the token. Effectively, the algorithm demonstrates a type of “intelligent routing” that identifies useful shortcuts in the routing of the token. The result is a reduction in the total number of messages exchanged prior to the execution of the critical section as compared to the algorithm proposed by Fu and Tzeng [3]. Furthermore, the algorithm allows for an increased degree of fairness in a lightly loaded system than that allowed by Fu and Tzeng's algorithm. The paper also addresses failure recovery issues.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene of 110 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients from the south-west of Germany was screened for 12 different mutations. This analysis resulted in an identification of 79% of all CF mutations and a complete genotype in 66% of the families. The most common mutation found was ΔF508 (67%). Another 5 mutations accounted for a further 12.5% (4% G542X; 3% R553X; 3% N1303K; 2% 1717-1 G→A; 0.5% G551D) whereas 6 mutations (R117H, A455E, ΔI507, S549I, S549N, and R1162X) were not found. Fifty-four (49%) patients were AF508 homozygotes and 18 (16.5%) were compound heterozygotes for ΔF508 and one of the rarer mutations. These frequencies differ slightly from those found in the north of Germany and considerably from those reported from the south of Europe, which seems to be consistent with a north to south decline of the relative abundance of ΔF508. Two patients, age 6 and 25 years, were compound heterozygotes for G542X and N1303K. The clinical features of the 6 year old were characterised by severe gastrointestinal and as yet only mild pulmonary complications whereas the 25 year old manifested severe pulmonary and gastrointestinal symptoms indicating that the N1303K mutation of the C-terminal CFTR nucleotide binding fold significantly impairs protein function in both the pancreas and the lungs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Chromosomally normal and trisomy-21 individuals were studied for the ability of their nucleolus-organising chromosomes to form satellite associations in G-banded lymphocyte metaphases. Two types of parameter, absolute association frequency and relative association frequency, were used. There was no significant difference between females and males or between Caucasoids and Mongoloids for either type of association parameter in the controls, nor was there significant correlation between age (17–40 years) and either type of parameter in the controls. The pattern of two chromosome associations is accounted for by two related models in both normal and trisomic individuals. These models imply that there is an extensive polymorphism for associating ability and that this ability may be zero in individual chromosomes. Homologous do not associate preferentially with each other. The absolute frequency of acrocentric association is lower in trisomy 21 individuals than disomic controls, but the relative involvement of chromosome 21 (after correction for the trisomic state) is higher than in the controls.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Acrocentric association was investigated in peripheral blood lymphocytes of twins (10Φ monozygotic and 11Φ dizygotic pairs), newborns and both parents (30 families), and spouses (51 pairs). Seventy two hour cultures were G-banded and scored for both absolute and relative acrocentric association frequency, except in the case of the spouse pairs where only the absolute frequency was measured. Both relative and absolute parameters of acrocentric association show positive correlations between relatives with the values being highest and most consistent in monozygotic twins, intermediate in parent and offspring, and most variable in dizygotic twins. Husband and wife pairs from our family collections show a positive correlation for the absolute parameter but not for relative parameters. The environmental factors responsible have not been identified. A rough estimate of broad sense heritability (0.81) has been made for the relative parameters. It probably contains a large component due to genetic dominance. Heritability of the absolute parameters is probably lower than for the relative parameters though estimation of its value is complicated by inconsistent results. A model is proposed to account for the variation in satellite association frequency which contains two elements: (i) The genotype determines the ratio of one chromosome type to another in the population of associated chromosomes. (ii) All other environmental factors influence the absolute frequency of association without altering this basic ratio.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1040-0397
    Keywords: Solid state electroanalysis ; Microanalysis ; Voltammetry ; Coulometry ; Minerals ; Sulfides ; Sulfosalts ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Analytical procedures are described for the solid state phase microanalysis of synthetic and natural tin-, arsenic-, and antimony-bearing sulfosalts and sulfides of thallium, tin, lead, and silver. In these procedures, abrasive stripping voltammetry and coulometry of the solid phases are applied. Trace amounts of the sample compounds were transferred onto the surface of a graphite electrode and the electrochemical reduction or oxidation was followed by voltammetric techniques. The most valuable technique for distinguishing different mineral phases is to record the anodic dissolution voltammograms after a preliminary electrolytic reduction of the sulfides or sulfosalts to the elementary metals which are still confined to the electrode surface. For various compounds an approach was developed in which the ratio of charges consumed during reduction and oxidation of the solid phases is used for unambiguous identification. Coulometric measurements are also used for the determination of the quantitative composition of the solid phases.
    Additional Material: 16 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0960-0760
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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