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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes ; Punjabi Asians ; HLA-DR typing ; DQβ-gene probing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes is less common in Asian Indians than in white Caucasoids. Forty-five Punjabi Asians with Type 1 diabetes and 96 racially matched control subjects were HLA-DR typed. DR3 was increased in diabetic patients vs control subjects (82% vs 38%, p〈10−5) with relative risk 7.7 and etiological fraction 0.72. DR4 was increased in diabetic patients vs control subjects (31% vs 7%, p〈0.003) with relative risk 5.7 and etiological fraction 0.26. DR2 showed a negative association (relative risk 0.19, etiological fraction −0.28), as did DR7 (relative risk 0.21, etiological fraction −0.33). HLA-DQβ-chain gene probing using restriction enzyme BamHI in 43 diabetic patients and 90 control subjects showed that the DR1-associated 6.2 and 3.2kb fragments were less common in diabetic patients than in the control subjects (12% vs 36%, p〈0.02). A 12kb fragment was associated with DR4 in both diabetic patients and control subjects. DR3 is the major susceptibility factor for Type 1 diabetes in Punjabi Asians and DR4 is a second marker. Gene probing indicates that the same DR4 subset is associated with the condition as in white Caucasoids. DR1 and its associated DQβ restriction fragments are reduced in Asian Type 1 diabetic patients making it unlikely that DR1 haplotypes carry a predisposing factor in this racial group. We conclude that the genetic component of Type 1 diabetes in Punjabis shows differences from that of the white Caucasoid population and that the lower frequency of DR4 in this population may contribute to the lower prevalence of Type 1 diabetes.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetes ; North Indian Asians ; HLA-DR typing ; DQβ ; DQα ; DRβ-gene probing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Genetic associations with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes may be primary or secondary to linkage disequilibrium. Studies of different racial groups should allow these to be distinguished. We have reported that Type 1 diabetes is associated with HLA-DR3 and -DR4 in subjects of North Indian (Punjab) origin and now present the results of a study of HLA class II DNA polymorphisms in this group and in white caucasoid subjects. DR4 in North Indian Type 1 diabetic patients was associated with DQβ and DXα DNA polymorphisms identical to those found in DR4-positive white caucasoid patients. This DQβ/DXα pattern was increased in frequency in North Indian diabetic patients vs control subjects (33.3% vs 8.5%,p〈0.001, relative risk=5.12 (95% confidence limits: 1.96–13.4)). A DQβ polymorphism with very low relative risk for Type 1 diabetes in white caucasoid subjects was also markedly reduced in North Indian diabetic patients vs control subjects (2.3% vs 24.7%,p〈0.02, relative risk = 0.10 (95% confidence limits: 0.02–0.46)). This pattern was associated with DR2 in white caucasoid subjects, but with DRw6 in North Indians. A DR3-associated DRβ polymorphism was markedly increased in North Indian diabetic patients vs control subjects (90.2% vs 40.7%,p〈10−6, relative risk = 12.1 (95% confidence limits: 4.32–33.9)). The DQ subregion may be a primary site of genetic influence on susceptibility to Type 1 diabetes. Further studies in different racial groups will clarify the HLA associations of Type 1 diabetes.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    BJOG 85 (1978), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay in Serum from women with normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancies. An analysis of the results obtained in normal pregnancy was made using arithmetic and semi-logarithmic scales, and a statistical conversion of the AFP values in relation to gestational age was introduced to allow an easier interpretation of results. In pre-eclampsia, significantly lower mean AFP values were obtained, with the majority of individual values being lower than the mean for normal pregnancy. These low levels were not associated with fetal death, but appeared to be related to the severity of disease. The significance of these findings remains to be evaluated.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We report the serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in 109 patients with ovarian cancer. Histology, degree of differentiation, and clinical stage influenced the incidence of positive CEA. Although CEA was significantly raised in patients with a variety of tumours, the highest incidence (77 per cent) was found in those with serous cystadenocarcinoma. Nearly all (94 per cent) of the poorly differentiated tumours were associated with a positive CEA result. Serial CEA levels provided a useful guide to management during cytotoxic chemotherapy, rapidly falling levels indicating a favourable tumour response which was reflected clinically. However, only two-thirds of tumours were associated with detectable CEA levels in serum, day-to-day variations in individual serum levels occurred, and CEA levels tended to fall paradoxically during terminal illness. The significance of persistently low levels in the apparent absence of disease was uncertain.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A quantitative study of cell-mediated immunological reactivity was made in patients with female genital tract cancer. Prinary reactivity was measured by contact sensitization to dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and secondary reactivity by delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity to skin test antigens (STA). In general, there was an increased incidence of anergic and impaired reactivity in patients with cancer of the cervix, corpus uteri or ovary, compared with age-matched controls; however, differences between patient-groups, regarding organ or origin or histological type, were small and insignificant. There was a progressive increase in incidence of anergic and impaired reactivity with worsening of clinical staging of the tumour. Significant differences in reactivity were noted between patients who had remained free of disease and those who had progressive disease after 12 months of follow-up. It is considered that impairment of cell-mediated immunity is an unfavourable factor in host-tumour interactions, and the possibility of augmenting immunological reactivity should be considered in management.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    BJOG 73 (1966), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    BJOG 68 (1961), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Biochemical genetics 20 (1982), S. 763-776 
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: urease ; ammonium and glutamine regulation ; Aspergillus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Aspergillus nidulans can utilize urea as a sole source of nitrogen but not as a carbon source. Urea is degraded by a urease. Mutation at any one of three genes, ureB, ureC, and ureD, may result in deficient urease activity. The ureB gene is closely linked to ureA, the structural gene for the urea transport protein. The heat lability of a ureB − revertant strain, intragenic complementation tests, and the linkage of ureB to ureA suggest that ureB is the urease structural gene. The ureD gene is probably involved in the synthesis or incorporation of a nickel cofactor essential for urease activity. The function of the ureC gene is not known. Urease is not induced but is subject to nitrogen regulation. The urease activities of ammonium-derepressed mutants show that the effector of nitrogen regulation is more likely to be glutamine than ammonium. When glutamine is present in the medium, urease appears to be inactivated by some means which does not involve a newly synthesized protease or a direct interaction between glutamine and urease.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Biochemical genetics 20 (1982), S. 777-790 
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: Aspergillus ; urea transport ; thiourea toxicity ; ammonium and glutamine regulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Wild-type Aspergillus nidulans has an active transport system specific for urea which concentrates urea at least 50-fold relative to the extracellular concentration. It is substrate concentration dependent, with an apparent K m of 3×10−5 m for urea. Competition studies and the properties of mutants indicate that thiourea is taken up by the same system as urea. Thiourea is toxic at 5mm to wild-type cells of Aspergillus nidulans. Mutants, designated ureA1 to ureA16, resistant to thiourea have been isolated, and transport assays and growth tests show that they are specifically impaired in urea transport. The mutant ureA1 has a higher K m value than the wild type for thiourea uptake. The ureA locus has been assigned to linkage group VIII. ureA1 is recessive for thiourea resistance while semidominant for the low uptake characteristic. The urea uptake system is under nitrogen regulation, with l-glutamine as the probable effector. The mutants, meaA8 and gdhA1, which are insensitive to ammonium control of many nitrogen-regulated metabolic systems, are also insensitive to ammonium control of urea uptake, but both are sensitive to l-glutamine regulation.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1059-910X
    Keywords: Mercox ; Vascular wall ; Resin casting ; Polymer casting ; Vascular corrosion casting ; Vascular replica/SEM method ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: We used intravital microscopy of small intestine and pancreas in order to show dynamic interactions between vascular wall and undiluted Mercox, because previous studies of ours have shown that Mercox diluted with monomeric methylmethacrylate penetrates cells in the vascular wall. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to show three-dimensional pathways and correlating tissue structures, which cannot be identified in vivo. The microvascular diameters were not altered when the vasculature was flushed with saline/dextran solution using perfusion pressures between 70 and 140 mm Hg, but, in circumscribed areas, contraction of vascular wall was observed immediately after Mercox injection. This phenomenon was carried out by endothelial cells; pericytes were never present at the site of constrictions. Extravasation, i.e., leakage of the resin into the surrounding tissue, occurred in circumscribed areas regardless of the applied perfusion pressure. The resin also filled routes, which were not perfused with blood before casting. Scanning microscopy of corresponding specimens showed flattened cast channels, with impressions of valves and endothelial cell nuclear imprints characteristic of lymphatics. These results show that undiluted Mercox is a stimulus for vascular cellular components and that it changes the vascular wall permeability, resulting in extravasation and filling of lymphatics. Transmission electron microscopy showed that large vessels were homogeneously filled with resin and that cellular structures were not infiltrated with Mercox. Cut sections of the gold-coated surface of casts showed grooves up to 20 nm wide, suggestive of minimal deformation, while the abluminal surface of the metal film was almost smooth. Another proof of minimal deformation of undiluted Mercox casts is that the diameter of vessels was not altered during and after polymerization. Obtained casts are not fragile, as are casts of diluted Mercox, and phase separation does not occur, which would result in penetration of the cells in the vascular wall. For these reasons, the use of undiluted Mercox is recommended. Mixing 10 ml Mercox with 1 g catalyst resulted in complete polymerization within 5.5-7 min. This mixture can be used for casting biological specimens. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 32 Ill.
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