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  • 1
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; GENES ; ASSOCIATION ; PHENOTYPE ; HETEROGENEITY ; N-MYC ; SIGNATURES ; ALK ; DNA METHYLATION DATA
    Abstract: Neuroblastoma is a malignancy of the developing sympathetic nervous system that is often lethal when relapse occurs. We here used whole-exome sequencing, mRNA expression profiling, array CGH and DNA methylation analysis to characterize 16 paired samples at diagnosis and relapse from individuals with neuroblastoma. The mutational burden significantly increased in relapsing tumors, accompanied by altered mutational signatures and reduced subclonal heterogeneity. Global allele frequencies at relapse indicated clonal mutation selection during disease progression. Promoter methylation patterns were consistent over disease course and were patient specific. Recurrent alterations at relapse included mutations in the putative CHD5 neuroblastoma tumor suppressor, chromosome 9p losses, DOCK8 mutations, inactivating mutations in PTPN14 and a relapse-specific activity pattern for the PTPN14 target YAP. Recurrent new mutations in HRAS, KRAS and genes mediating cell-cell interaction in 13 of 16 relapse tumors indicate disturbances in signaling pathways mediating mesenchymal transition. Our data shed light on genetic alteration frequency, identity and evolution in neuroblastoma.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26121086
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  • 2
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; SYSTEM ; DIFFERENTIATION ; TUMOR-GROWTH ; NERVE ; CULTURES ; PATHOLOGY CLASSIFICATION ; GLIAL GROWTH-FACTORS
    Abstract: In neuroblastoma, the most common solid tumor of childhood, excellent prognosis is associated with extensive Schwann cell (SC) content and high-level expression of the neurotrophin receptor, NTRK1/TrkA, which is known to mediate neuroblastoma cell differentiation. We hypothesized that both stromal composition and neuroblastic differentiation are based on bidirectional neuroblastoma-SC interaction. Reanalysis of microarray data from human SY5Y neuroblastoma cells stably transfected with either NTRK1 or NTRK2 revealed upregulation of the mRNA for the SC growth factor, NRG1, in NTRK1-positive cells. Media conditioned by NTRK1-expressing neuroblastoma cells induced SC proliferation and migration, while antibody-based NRG1 neutralization significantly decreased these effects. Vice versa, NRG1-stimulated SC secreted the NTRK1-specific ligand, NGF. SC-conditioned medium activated the NTRK1 receptor in a neuroblastoma cell culture model conditionally expressing NTRK1 and induced differentiation markers in NTRK1-expressing cells. NTRK1 induction in neuroblastoma xenografts mixed with primary SC also significantly reduced tumor growth in vivo. We propose a model for NTRK1-mediated and NRG1-dependent attraction of adjacent SC, which in turn induce neuroblastic differentiation by secretion of the NTRK1-specific ligand, NGF. These findings have implications for understanding the mature and less malignant neuroblastoma phenotype associated with NTRK1 expression, and could assist the development of new therapeutic strategies for neuroblastoma differentiation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25361003
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