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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Apolipoprotein H (APO H) has recently been identified as a structural component of chylomicrons, very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Although the precise metabolic function of APO H in lipid metabolism is not certain, it has been suggested that APO H may be involved in triglyceride (TG) metabolism. In addition to the previously described quantitative polymorphism, we have recently detected a common qualitative polymorphism at the APO H structural locus. To test the role of APO H genetic variation in determining lipoprotein and lipid levels, we have estimated the allelic effects of APO H variation on TG, VLDL, LDL, HDL, HDL3, and total cholesterol on 356 Nigerian blacks(189 males, 167 females). While no significant effect of phenotype was observed on lipoprotein levels, the effect of interaction between phenotype and gender was significant. Therefore, data on males and females were analyzed separately using analysis of variance after adjusting for age and body mass index. Logarithmic transformation of pertinent variables was done to bring the distribution of the variables closer to normality. A statistically significant effect of phenotype was observed on triglyceride levels in females only (P〈0.05). Further analysis of this phenotypic effect revealed that it is due to the impact of the APO H * 3 allele, which raises triglycerides by 9.92 mg/dl as compared to the common allele, APO H * 2. These findings are in accordance with the postulated role of APO H in triglyceride metabolism. On the basis of its sex-specific effect, we propose a hypothesis that may explain the combined influence of the quantitative and qualitative polymorphisms at the APO H locus on triglyceride levels in females.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary It is shown that a simple preferential transmission of the PiZ allele by PiZ-heterozygous males for α1-antitrypsin deficiency cannot maintain the observed polymorphism at the locus without invoking any viability or fertility selection against the PiZ gene carriers (heterozygotes or homozygotes). From the data on frequencies of PiZ alleles in Europe, the estimates of such selection coefficients are shown to be of the order of 5–20%, which seems too large for natural populations. Furthermore, an analysis of 26 nuclear families, each ascertained through a heterozygous PiZ or homozygous ZZ child, does not provide statistical evidence for such a hypothesis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus ; association ; Rhesus blood group ; haptoglobin ; group specific component
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, a disease of complex aetiology, has been reported to be nonrandomly associated with several polymorphic markers in human populations. These data, plus evidence of a high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in American Indians and mixed populations, such as Mexican-Americans, which is only partially attributable to the prevalence of obesity in these populations, makes it imperative that the nature of such associations be clarified in relation to genetic susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present paper reports the results of tests of association between Type 2 diabetes mellitus and seven polymorphic markers: the blood groups — ABO, Rhesus, Duffy and Kell (K and KP) — haptoglobin and group specific component; among Anglo and Hispanic populations in the San Luis Valley of Colorado, USA. The sample population consisted of 788 individuals of which 398 were Anglo subjects (97 Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 301 normal individuals) and 390 Hispanic subjects (191 Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 199 normal individuals). Association between Type 2 diabetes mellitus and genetic markers in patients was tested using the G2 statistic within each ethnic class using normal frequencies as a comparison. Results of the tests indicated that only the Kell blood group was significantly associated with Type 2 diabetes mellitus at a 5% level among the Anglo subjects (G2=5.16, 1df). This significant value can be explained by chance alone, if multiple comparisons are taken into account. Our tests have not shown the previously reported haptoglobin or Rhesus blood group associations seen in Mexican-Americans in San Antonio, Texas.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Anthropology 20 (1991), S. 97-117 
    ISSN: 0084-6570
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Ethnic Sciences , Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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