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  • 1
    Keywords: brain ; PEPTIDE ; RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; INHIBITOR ; BLOOD ; CELL ; GENE ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; transcription ; METABOLISM ; MICE ; RELEASE ; ACTIVATION ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; IMPACT ; hepatocytes ; BINDING ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; SIGNAL ; ACID ; CREB ; ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN ; TRANSGENIC MICE ; hormone ; DISRUPTION ; BODY ; MUTANT MICE ; HYPOPLASIA ; BINDING PROTEIN ; LOSSES ; SIGNALS ; EXPANSION ; CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT ; CREB FUNCTION ; HORMONE-RELEASING-HORMONE ; NEURAL STEM
    Abstract: The principal regulation of body growth is via a cascade of hormone signals emanating from the hypothalamus, by release of GHRH, which then directs the somatotroph cells of the pituitary to release GH into the blood stream. This in turn leads to activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5-dependent expression of genes such as IGF-1 in hepatocytes, acid labile substance, and serine protease inhibitor 2.1, resulting in body growth. Here, using conditional cAMP response element binding protein ( CREB) mutant mice, we show that loss of the CREB transcription factor in the brain, but not the pituitary, results in reduced postnatal growth consistent with dwarfism caused by GH deficiency. We demonstrate that although there appears to be no significant impact upon the expression of GHRH mRNA in CREB mutant mice, the amount of GHRH peptide is reduced. These findings show that CREB is required for the efficient production of GHRH in hypothalamus, in addition to its previously reported role in pituitary GH production and somatotroph expansion
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16141355
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In the adult cricket, neurogenesis occurs in the mushroom bodies, the main integrative structures of the insect brain. Mushroom body neuroblast proliferation is modulated in response to environmental stimuli. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unspecified. In the present study, we demonstrate that electrical stimulation of the antennal nerve mimics the effects of olfactory activation and increases mushroom body neurogenesis. The putative role of nitric oxide (NO) in this activity-regulated neurogenesis was then explored. In vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrate that NO synthase inhibition decreases, and NO donor application stimulates neuroblast proliferation. NADPH-d activity, anti-l-citrulline immunoreactivity, as well as in situ hybridization with a probe specific for Acheta NO synthase were used to localize NO-producing cells. Combining these three approaches we clearly establish that mushroom body interneurons synthesize NO. Furthermore, we demonstrate that experimental interventions known to upregulate neuroblast proliferation modulate NO production: rearing crickets in an enriched sensory environment induces an upregulation of Acheta NO synthase mRNA, and unilateral electrical stimulation of the antennal nerve results in increased l-citrulline immunoreactivity in the corresponding mushroom body. The present study demonstrates that neural activity modulates progenitor cell proliferation and regulates NO production in brain structures where neurogenesis occurs in the adult insect. Our results also demonstrate the stimulatory effect of NO on mushroom body neuroblast proliferation. Altogether, these data strongly suggest a key role for NO in environmentally induced neurogenesis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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