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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Biology and fertility of soils 17 (1994), S. 173-176 
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Ammonification ; Cyfluthrin ; Nitrification ; Nitrogen ; N mineralization ; N transformations ; Pesticides
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Laboratory incubation experiments were conducted in soil to study the influence of the insecticide Baythroid on immobilization-remineralization of added inorganic N, mineralization of organic N, and nitrification of added NH inf4 su+ -N. Baythroid was applied at 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, and 6.4 μg g-1 soil (active ingredient basis). The treated soils were incubated at 30°C for different time intervals depending upon the experiment. The immobilization and mineralization of N were significantly increased in the presence of Baythroid, the effect being greater with higher doses of the insecticide. Conversely, nitrification was retarded at lower doses of Baythroid and significantly inhibited at higher doses. The results of these studies suggest that excessive amonts of insecticide residues affect different microbial populations differently, leading to changes in nutrient cycling.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: ANI ; Baythroid ; Cyfluthrin ; Insecticide ; 15N ; Nitrification ; N uptake ; Synthetic pyrethroid ; Zea mays
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract A pot experiment was conducted to compare the uptake and dry matter production potential of NH inf4 sup+ and NO inf3 sup- and to study the effect of Baythroid, a contact poison for several insect pests of agricultural crops, on growth and N uptake of maize (Zea mays L.). Nitrogen was applied as (15NH4)2SO4, K15NO3, or 15NH4NO3 and in one treatment Baythroid was combined with 15NH4NO3. Source of N had, in general, a nonsignificant effect on dry matter and N yield, but uptake of NO inf3 sup- was significantly higher than that of NH inf4 sup+ when both N sources were applied together. Substantial loss of N occurred from both the sources, with NH inf4 sup+ showing greater losses. Baythroid was found to have a significant positive effect on dry matter yield of both root and shoot; N yield also increased significantly. Uptake of N from both the applied and native sources increased significantly in the presence of Baythroid and a substantial added nitrogen interaction (ANI) was determined. The positive effect of Baythroid was attributed to: (1) a prolonged availability of NH inf4 sup+ due to inhibition of nitrification, (2) an increased availability of native soil N through enhanced mineralization, and (3) an enhanced root proliferation.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The linkage relationships between the cystic fibrosis (CF) locus and four marker loci (MET-H, MET-D, D7S8 and D7S16), allelic associations between these loci and the extent of informativity at these marker loci were investigated in a sample of 206 families with at least one child affected by CF. The data were contributed by 11 laboratories from Europe and Israel. The maximum lod scores and recombination frequency estimates ( $$\hat \theta $$ ) (and confidence limits of θ) were: 18.3 at $$\hat \theta $$ =0.007(0.001−0.038) for CF vs. MET, 11.0 at $$\hat \theta $$ (0.001–0.068) for CF vs. D7S8, and 5.7 at $$\hat \theta $$ =0.0(0.0−0.064) for CF vs. D7S16. A gene order of CF-MET-D7S8 was best supported by the data, but its preference to the order D7S8-CF-MET is mainly based on one single family. There are significant allelic associations between CF, MET, D7S8 and D7S16; these allelic associations affect the risk of random individuals to be carriers of CF.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1A ; Duplication on chromosome 17p11.2 ; Variable clinical phenotype
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) was diagnosed by nerve conduction velocity and histology of the sural nerve in two boys aged 3 and 6 years with clinical signs of a severe neuromuscular disease. DNA analysis revealed the typical duplication on chromosome 17p 11.2 (2.7 kb allele) for CMT 1A. Although none of their family members reported symptoms of neuromuscular disease, the nerve conduction velocity was reduced in three members (father and two aunts). They were homozygous for the 2.7 kb allele and were assumed to carry three copies of this allele. The very differing clinical picture from one generation to the next in patients with identical neurophysiological and genetic results is discussed.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The N1303K mutation was identified in the second nucleotide binding fold of the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene last year. We have gathered data from laboratories throughout Europe and the United States of America in order to estimate its frequency and to attempt to characterise the clinical manifestations of this mutation. N1303K, identified on 216 of nearly 15000 CF chromosomes tested, accounts for 1.5% of all CF chromosomes. The frequency of the N1303K allele varies significantly between countries and ethnic groups, being more common in Southern than in Northern Europe. This variation is independent of the AF508 allele. It was not found on UK Asian, American Black or Australian chromosomes. N1303K is associated with four different linked marker haplotypes for the polymorphic markers XV-2c, KM.19 and pMP6d-9. Ten patients are homozygous for this mutation, whereas 106 of the remainder carry one of 12 known CF mutations in the other CF allele. We classify N1303K as a “severe” mutation with respect to the pancreas, but can find no correlation between this mutation, in either the homozygous or heterozygous state, and the severity of lung disease.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1433-0474
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Prader-Willi-Syndrom ; Angelman-Syndrom ; Methylierungsspezifische Polymerasekettenreaktion (M-PCR) ; Genomic imprinting ; Keywords Prader-Willi syndrome ; Angelman syndrome ; Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) ; Genomic imprinting
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Background. The methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) is a new method for investigating patients with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndrome. This paper reports a modification of the M-PCR method to replace the conventional gel electrophoresis by automatic high voltage capillary electrophoresis resulting in increased sensitivity and simplified handling. Method and patients: We investigated blood samples of 31 patients with clinical features of Prader-Willi syndrome, 20 patients with clinical features of Angelman syndrome and 25 control individuals. 5 samples of Prader-Willi patients and 11 samples of Angelman patients had previously been analysed by the conventional Southern blot technique. Results. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed in 3 of 31 Prader-Willi patients (9,68%) and in 8 of 20 Angelman patients (40%). The 25 control individuals all showed normal results. The data obtained by M-PCR and Southern blot analysis showed 100% concordance. Conclusions. The modified M-PCR method improves rapidity, reliability and profitability and is very valuable for the investigation of children with clinical suspicion of Prader-Willi or Angelman syndrome.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Hintergrund. Die methylierungsspezifische Polymerasekettenreaktion (M-PCR) ist eine neue Labormethode zur Diagnose des Prader-Willi- und des Angelman-Syndroms. Im vorgestellten Verfahren wurde die konventionelle Gelelektrophorese durch eine automatisierte Hochspannungskapillarelektrophorese ersetzt, mit dem Ziel die Sensitivität zu erhöhen und die Handhabung der M-PCR zu vereinfachen. Methode und Patienten. Es wurden 31 Blutproben von Patienten mit dem klinischen Verdacht auf ein Prader-Willi-Syndrom, 20 Blutproben von Patienten mit dem Verdacht auf ein Angelman-Syndrom sowie 25 Blutproben von Kontrollpersonen mit der M-PCR untersucht. Bereits früher waren 5 Proben von Prader-Willi- und 11 Proben von Angelman-Patienten mir der herkömmlichen Southern-Blot-Technik analysiert worden. Ergebnisse. Bei 3 der 31 Blutproben von Patienten mit Verdacht auf ein Prader-Willi-Syndrom (9,68%) und bei 8 der 20 Blutproben von Patienten mit Verdacht auf ein Angelman-Syndrom (40%) konnte die klinische Diagnose bestätigt werden. Die 25 Kontrollpersonen zeigten in allen Fällen ein normales Resultat. Die früher mit der Southern-Blot-Technik erzielten Resultate ließen sich durchweg bestätigen. Schlussfolgerung. Dank der Schnelligkeit, Zuverlässigkeit und Wirtschaftlichkeit hat sich die vorgestellte M-PCR-Methode zur routinemäßigen Abklärung von Kindern mit klinischem Verdacht auf das Vorliegen eines Prader-Willi- oder Angelman-Syndroms bewährt.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A patient with rheumatoid arthritis developed ulcerated nodules predominantly on his legs. Skin biopsy and culture demonstrated rheumatoid vasculitis and infection with Mycobacterium haemophilum. Improvement was not seen until clarithromycin was added to his treatment regimen.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words ANI ; Baythroid ; Cyfluthrin ; Insecticide ; 15N ; Nitrification ; N uptake ; Synthetic pyrethroid ; Zea mays
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract A pot experiment was conducted to compare the uptake and dry matter production potential of NH+ 4 and NO– 3 and to study the effect of Baythroid, a contact poison for several insect pests of agricultural crops, on growth and N uptake of maize (Zea mays L.). Nitrogen was applied as (15NH4)2SO4, K15NO3, or 15NH4NO3 and in one treatment Baythroid was combined with 15NH4NO3. Source of N had, in general, a nonsignificant effect on dry matter and N yield, but uptake of NO– 3 was significantly higher than that of NH+ 4 when both N sources were applied together. Substantial loss of N occurred from both the sources, with NH+ 4 showing greater losses. Baythroid was found to have a significant positive effect on dry matter yield of both root and shoot; N yield also increased significantly. Uptake of N from both the applied and native sources increased significantly in the presence of Baythroid and a substantial added nitrogen interaction (ANI) was determined. The positive effect of Baythroid was attributed to: (1) a prolonged availability of NH+ 4 due to inhibition of nitrification, (2) an increased availability of native soil N through enhanced mineralization, and (3) an enhanced root proliferation.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0003-2697
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Automated software engineering 6 (1999), S. 265-289 
    ISSN: 1573-7535
    Keywords: design patterns ; reengineering ; program transformation ; object oriented design
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract This paper presents a new approach to the use of design patterns for the reengineering of legacy code, using a mapping from procedural design patterns to object-oriented patterns. We show also how object-oriented design patterns can be formalised and correctness conditions for their application derived, in order to justify the preservation of functionality in the reengineering process. We give examples taken from case studies of reengineering legacy COBOL applications.
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