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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-4943
    Keywords: Semisynthesis ; tertiary template ; α-helical conformation of peptides
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The influence of n-propanol on the overall α-helical conformation of β-globin, apocytochrome C, and the functional domain of streptococcal M49 protein (pepM49) and its consequence on the proteolysis of the respective proteins has been investigated. A significant amount of α-helical conformation is induced into these proteins atpH 6.0 and 4°C in the presence of relatively low concentrations of n-propanol. The induction of α-helical conformation into the proteins increased as a function of the propanol concentration, the maximum induction occurring around 30% n-propanol. In the case of α-globin, the fluorescence of its tryptophyl residues also increased as a function of n-propanol concentration, the midpoint of this transition being around 20% n-propanol. Furthermore, concomitant with the induction of helical conformation into these proteins, the proteolysis of their polypeptide chain by V8 protease also gets restricted. The α-helical conformation induced into α- and β-globin by n-propanol decreased as the temperature is raised from 4 to 24°C. In contrast, the α-helical conformation of both α- and β-chain (i.e., globin with noncovalently bound heme) did not exhibit such a sensitivity to this change in temperature. However, distinct differences exist between the n-propanol induced “α-helical conformation” of globins and the “α-helical conformation” of α- and β-chains. A cross-correlation of the n-propanol induced increase in the fluorescence of β-globin with the corresponding increase in the α-helical conformation of the polypeptide chain suggested that the fluorescence increase represents a structural change of the protein that is secondary to the induction of the α-helical conformation into the protein (i.e., an integration of the helical conformation induced to the segments of the polypeptide chain to influence the microenvironment of the tryptophyl residues). Presumably, the fluorescence increase is a consequence of the packing of the helical segments of globin to generate a “native-like structure.” The induction of α-helical conformation into these proteins in the presence of n-propanol and the consequent generation of “native-like conformation” is not unique to n-propanol. Trifluoroethanol, another helix-inducing organic solvent, also behaves in the same fashion as n-propanol. However, in contrast to the proteins described above, n-propanol could neither induce an α-helical conformation into performic acid oxidized RNAse-A nor restrict its proteolysis by proteases. Thus, the high sensitivity of apoproteins and the protein domains to assume α-helical conformation in the presence of low concentration of n-propanol with a concomitant restriction of the proteolytic susceptibility of their polypeptide chain appears to be unique to those proteins that exhibit high α-helical propensities. Apparently, this phenomenon of helix induction and the restriction of proteolysis reflects the formation of rudimentary tertiary interaction of the native protein and is unique to apoproteins or structural domains of α-helical proteins. Consistent with this concept, the induction of α-helical conformation into shorter polypeptide fragments of 30 residues, (e.g., α1-30, which exists in an α-helical conformation in hemoglobin) is very low. Besides, this peptide exhibited neither the high sensitivity to the low concentrations of n-propanol seen with the apoproteins/protein domains nor the resistance toward proteolysis. The results suggest that the organic cosolvent induced decrease in the conformational flexibility of the apoprotein, and the consequent restriction of their proteolytic cleavage provides an opportunity to develop new strategies for protease catalyzed segment condensation reactions.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-4943
    Keywords: Streptococcal M protein ; N-terminal region ; coiled-coil ; dimer/monomer ; molecular assembly ; molecular hinge
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Group A streptococcal M protein, a major virulence factor, is an alpha-helical coiled-coil dimer on the surface of the bacteria. Limited proteolysis of type 57 streptococcus with pepsin released two fragments of the M57 molecule, with apparent molecular weights of 32,000 and 27,000 on SDS-PAGE. However, on gel filtration under nondenaturing conditions, each of these proteins eluted as two distinct molecular forms. The two forms corresponded to their dimeric and monomeric state as compared to the gel filtration characteristics of known dimeric coiled-coil proteins. The results of sedimentation equilibrium measurements were consistent with this, but further indicated that the “dimeric form” consisted of a dimer in rapid equilibrium with its monomer, whereas the “monomeric form” does not dimerize. The monomeric form was the predominant species for the 27 kD species, whereas the dimeric form predominated for the 32 kD species. Sequence analysis revealed the 27 kD species to be a truncated derivative of the 32 kD PepM57 species, lacking the N-terminal nonheptad region of the M57 molecule. These data strongly suggested that the N-terminal nonheptad region of PepM57 is important in determining the molecular state of the molecule. Consistent with this, PepM49, another nephritis-associated serotype, which lacks the nonheptad N-terminal region, also eluted as a monomer on gel filtration under nondenaturing conditions. Furthermore, removal of the N-terminal nonheptad segment of the dimeric PepM6 protein converted it into a monomeric form. The dimeric molecular form of both the 32 kD PepM57 and the 27 kD PepM57 did not represent a stable state of assembly, and were susceptible to conversion to the corresponding monomeric molecular forms by simple treatments, such as lyophilization. The 27 kD PepM57 exhibited a greater propensity than the 32 kD species to exist in the monomeric form. The 32 kD species contained the opsonic epitope of the M57 molecule, whereas the 27 kD species lacked the same. This is consistent with the previous reports on the importance of the N-terminal region of M protein for its opsonic activity. Together, these results strongly suggest that, in addition to its importance for the biological function, the N-terminal region of the M protein plays a dominant role in determining the molecular state of the M molecule, as well as its stability.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-4943
    Keywords: Long-range effects ; site-specific perturbations ; central cavity cross-bridges ; asymmetric hybrids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The general assumption among researchers on hemoglobin is that the intramolecular central cavity cross-bridging of Hb does not result in any generalized perturbations at the protein surface. A corollary of this is that central cavity cross-bridges are unlikely to influence the polymerization of deoxy HbS, since polymerization is a protein surface phenomenon involving the participation of multiple protein surface amino acid residues. In an attempt to evaluate this experimentally, we have introduced two low-O2-affinity-inducing central cavity cross-bridges into HbS, ββ-sebacyl [between the two Lys-82(β) residues] and αα-fumaryl [between the two Lys-99(α) residues], and investigated their influence on the polymerization of the deoxy protein. The O2 affinities of the cross-bridged HbS exhibited sensitivity toward the buffer ions and pH in a cross-link-specific fashion. The modulation of the O2 affinity of these cross-bridged HbS in the presence of allosteric effectors, DPG and L-35, is also very distinct, reflecting the differences in the conformational features these two cross-bridges induce within the central cavity at the respective effector-binding domains. In addition, the αα-fumaryl cross bridge inhibited the polymerization, reflecting the perturbation of the microenvironment of one or more intermolecular contact residues, protein surface residues, as a consequence of the central cavity cross-bridge. On the other hand, the ββ-sebacyl cross-bridge exerted a slight potentiating effect on the polymerization of HbS. This reflects the fact that the perturbations at the protein surface are limited and favor polymerization. The results presented demonstrate that the structural changes induced by the central cavity cross-bridges are very specific and not simply restricted to the sites of modification, but are propagated to distant sites/domains, both within and outside the central cavity. It is conceivable that other surface regions that are not involved in the polymerization could also experience similar structural/conformational consequences. These results should be taken into consideration in designing intramolecularly cross-bridged asymmetric hybrid HbS for mapping the contribution of the intermolecular contact residues in the cis and trans dimers of deoxy HbS during polymerization.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4943
    Keywords: Streptococcal M protein ; antiphagocytic ; limited proteolysis ; conserved pepsin site ; subdomains ; molecular hinge/flexibility
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Serologically distinct group A streptococcal M proteins, the antiphagocytic determinants of the bacteria, have a highly repetitive sequence and exhibit a heptad periodicity characteristic of alpha-helical coiled-coil proteins. Based on the differences in the pattern of heptad periodicity, the coiled-coil region of the complete M molecule has been divided into three distinct domains: I, II, and III. Domains I and II together constitute the variable part of M protein, whereas domain III is conserved among serotypes. Pepsin treatment of the M5, M6, and M24 streptococci results in a preferential cleavage of their M molecules between the predicted domains II and III, releasing biologically active fragments of the respective M proteins. Thus, a pepsin cleavage site at the junction of their variable and conserved regions is conserved in the M5, M6, and M24 proteins. In contrast, in the case of the M49 streptococci, the primary site of pepsin cleavage was observed to be within the conserved region of the M49 molecule, rather than at the junction of its variable and conserved regions. Despite containing part of the conserved region, the PepM49 protein is significantly smaller than the pepsin fragments of the M5, M6, and M24 proteins, which contain only the variable regions. However, in addition to the major PepM49 species, the pepsin digest of the type-49 streptococci also contained a smaller fragment, PepM49/a, as a minor component. Its formation was extremely sensitive to thepH of pepsin digestion. PepM49/a, which retains both the propensity to attain an alpha-helical conformation and the opsonic antibody epitope of the M49 molecule, contains only domains I and II like the other PepM proteins. Thus, as in the M5, M6, and M24 proteins, a pepsin cleavage site at the junction of the variable and conserved regions is indeed present in the M49 molecule, but is much less accessible relative to the other serotypes. Thus, the pepsin cleavage sites in the M protein correlate quite well with the boundaries of structurally distinct domains reflected by the predictive analysis. These sites apparently represent the flexible/hinge regions of the molecule. PepM49/a is the least repetitive and the shortest of the M protein pepsin fragments isolated so far. These results suggest that the flexibility of the interdomain regions in M protein may be dependent on the molecular size of their variable domains. The placement of a more accessible hinge within the conserved part of the M49 molecule, rather than at the junction of the variable and conserved domains, suggests that a critical molecular size may be essential for the efficient functioning of the M molecule.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Group A streptococci ; Phagocytosis ; Resistance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: coiled-coli ; alpha-helix ; antiphagocytic ; heptad ; antigenic variation ; sequence repeats ; cell wall protein ; intermediate filaments ; myosin ; tropomyosin ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: M protein is considered a virulence determinant on the streptococcal cell wall by virtue of its ability to allow the organism to resist attack by human neutrophils. The complete DNA sequence of the M6 gene from streptococcal strain D471 has allowed, for the first time, the study of the structural characteristics of the amino acid sequence of an entire M protein molecule. Predictive secondary structural analysis revealed that the majority of this fibrillar molecule exhibits strong alpha-helical potential and that, except for the ends, nonpolar residues in the central region of the molecule exhibit the 7-residue periodicity typical for coiled-coil proteins. Differences in this heptad pattern of nonpolar residues allow this central rod region to be divided into three subdomains which correlate essentially with the repeat regions A, B, and C/D in the M6 protein sequence. Alignment of the N-terminal half of the M6 sequence with PepM5, the N-terminal half of the M5 protein, revealed that 42% of the amino acids were identical. The majority of the identities were “core” nonpolar residues of the heptad periodicity which are necessary for the maintenance of the coiled coil. Thus, conservation of structure in a sequence-variable region of these molecules may be biologically significant. Results suggest that serologically different M proteins may be built according to a basic scheme: an extended central coiled-coil rod domain (which may vary in size among strains) flanked by functional end domains.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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